Flashcards in Disorders of Language Deck (11):
What is meant by lateralisation of language?
idea that one cerebral hemisphere is specialised for language -> dominance.
What percentage of people have language in their left hemisphere?
95% of right handers, 70% of left handers
What role, if any, does the right hemisphere play with language?
plays a role in:
non-propositional language (automatic, basic words)
prosody (intonation, rhythm, stress in speech)
paralinguistic aspects of speech (how we say things - pitch, voice)
What is a non-fluent aphasia? how do these occur?
loss of grammatical/sequential structure to sentences ie may just use nouns, intact selection of content (ie they are the right nouns) = BROCA's APHASIA -> due to anterior lesions
What is a fluent aphasia?
impaired selection of content (cannot pick the right words -> difficult to comprehend) but intact grammatical structures = WERNICKE'S APHASIA -> due to posterior lesions
What are the features of Wernickes aphasia?
impaired comprehension of speech
fluent (intact grammer) jargonistic language -> neologisms (made up words), paraphasic errors (semantic, phonological)
What are paraphasias? what are the different types?
production of unintended syllables, words, or phrases during the effort to speak.
Semantic -> using the wrong word but with a similar meaning (van instead of car)
Phonological (word that sounds similar to the word they want - boap instead of boat)
Neologisms (making up new words)
What are the non-language associated features of Wernicke's aphasia?
no motor weakness
What is conduction aphasia?
Damage to arcuate fasiculus tract -> fluent aphasia - like wernickes but easier to understand. Good auditory comprehension. Cannot repeat words.
What are the features of transcorticol motor aphasias? where is the lesion located?
cingulate and prefrontal cortex lesion -> Non-fluent aphasia = quite extreme (mute), little spontaneous language but can repeat things