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Flashcards in Pain Deck (19):
1

What are the two classes of pain sensation

adaptive, protective pain
- nociceptive pain
- Inflammatory pain
Maladaptive, pathological pain
- neuropathic pain
- functional pain syndrome

2

What are the responses to nociceptor activation?

pain - higher order cortical process -> learn about things that might hurt us
autonomic responses
withdrawal reflex - spinal cord reflex

3

What are the 2 nociceptor fibre types?

C Fibres and Adelta fibres

4

What are the characteristics of C fibres? where do they project?

fine diameter and NO myelin ("See them bc their naked"), dorsal rexed laminar (regions 1 & 2) of the dorsal horn -> slower burning/throbbing pain.

5

What kind of fibre types are the cutaneous (meissner, etc) mechanoreceptors?

A-beta fibres

6

What are the features of the A-delta fibres - what info do they carry?

myelinated, fine diameter, med-fast transmission to both dorsal and ventral rexed lamina of the dorsal horn (regions 1 and 5) - initial SHARP pain

7

What happens to receptor firing when stimuli is removed from touch receptors vs nociceptors?

touch = stops firing, nociceptors continue to fire if tissue has been damaged

8

Where are Adelta and C fibre nociceptors found?

hairy skin = both, glabrous skin only has C fibres

9

What two things are altered in Inflammatory pain?

altered pain sensitivity & spontaneous pain

10

Describe the process of peripheral sensitisation

?

11

What is hyperalgesia?

an increased response to a normally painful stimulus -> accentuated feelings of pain -> change in stimulus intensity

12

What is allodynia?

a painful response to a normally innocuous stimulus -> change in threshold

13

What is central sensitisation?

?

14

What is neuropathic pain? What happens in peripheral neuropathic pain?

pain due to a neural lesion and damage to the somatosensory system eg brachial plexus avulsion, strokes or MS.
peripheral: - fibres generate pain signals without stimulation

15

What is dysfunctional pain?

pain which is due to no identifiable pathology ->eg migraine, fibromyalgia

16

What is the descending pathway that modulates pain?

periaquaductal grey, rostroventral medulla

17

How does affective responses (emotional state) influence pain perception?

natural threat/stimulus (ie cat for a mouse) causes hypoalgesia as part of the fear response -> amygdala sends signals to the PAG. Expectations of pain can increase pain sensations felt

18

the spinoparabrachial tract transmits signs from nociceptors to where?

limbic centre -> emotional/aversive perception

19

What is secondary hyperalgesia? how does it occur?

expansion of region of sensitivity into areas which were not physically damaged due to Central sensitization