Flashcards in Cognitive - Cognitive Interview & Improving Memory Deck (30)
Who designed the Cognitive Interview?
Fisher & Geisalman
What are the 4 main components of the Cognitive Interview?
-Recall in reverse order
-Recall from a different perspective
Explain 'Report everything' in terms of the Cognitive Interview
Reporting all detail regardless of how trivial it may appear. This would ensure no information is lost that could be useful
Explain 'Context reinstatement' in terms of the Cognitive Interview
Recreates the scene of the incident in the mind of the witness, including sights, sounds, emotions, mindset at the time.
Evidence suggests we are more likely to recall information if it is in a similar context to how it was encoded.
Explain 'Recall in reverse order' and 'Recall from a different perspective' in terms of the Cognitive Interview
Based on the idea that once information is stored, there is more than one way of retrieving it
Why might the Cognitive Interview lead to improved recall?
-Avoids leading questions
-Highlights details that may contradict each other
-Provides cues for retrieval
-Can stimulate previously 'dormant' neurones, accessing further details
Name a study into the effectiveness of the Cognitive Interview
State the procedure of Geiselman's study
got participants to watch a video of a violent crime. A few days later they were interviewed in one of 3 ways: standard police interview, cognitive interview or under hypnosis.
State the results of Geiselman's study
The Cognitive Interview was found to trigger more accurate recall
(41 correct items compared to 30 in the standard interviews)
Name and explain a meta-analysis into the Cognitive Interview
Kohnken et al
Carried out a meta-analysis of 53 studies and found that the CI could elicit an average of 34% more detail than the standard interview
State a weakness of the cognitive interview
Tends to be too time-consuming
What 2 ways can memory be improved?
What are the 2 Organisation strategies?
-Mnemonics using visual imagery
What is the encoding strategy?
Encoding specificity principle
What are the 3 main categories in Mnemonics and visual imagery?
-Method of Loci
-Peg word method
Explain 'stories' as a method of improving memory
To put lists of words into the format of a story, where each item forms a very visual part of the story line
Explain 'method of loci' as a method of improving memory
Identifying a set of familiar places (the number correlating with the number of items you need to remember) and delegate each item to a location. The locations act as retrieval cues because you already know them well
Explain the 'peg-word method' as a method of memory improvement
Where retrieval cues are a set of known 'pegs', such as learning a set of objects that rhyme with numbers (e.g one is gun) and say the first object on the list is tomatoes, you imagine tomatoes being shot by a gun
What did Paivio conclude about visual imagery?
That it works better with concrete nouns (food items, stationery etc) rather than with more abstract terms such as hope because concrete nouns are encoded verbally and visually, whereas abstract words are more likely to just be verbally.
He called this the 'dual encoding hypothesis'
Name and explain a study into visual imagery as a method of memory improvement
Gave a list of items to 2 groups to memorise, where one was told to use visual imagery.
80% of that group were likely to remember the second word, where as 45% of the control group could
Explain 'chunking' as a method of memory improvement
Understanding material allows us to integrate and unify material. Chunking involves putting information into sub-groups to condense it
Name and explain a study into chunking
Asked people to remember a list of single digit numbers, but once commas were put in, dividing them into square numbers, they were easier to remember due to being chunked into a pattern that is easier to understand
What is the encoding specificity principal?
Where information (cues) about the learning environment/internal environment was encoded along with the required data the memorise
Explain 'context-dependant recall' as a method of improving memory
Having the same location as encoding when retrieving data
Name, explain and evaluate a study into Context-dependent recall
Gave 80 words to learn in a basement. Then asked to recall either in a basement of a 5th floor of a building.
Average recall for basement: 18 words
Average recall for 5th floor: 12 words
However, the environmental differences need to be substantial before any significant difference in recall performance
What is state-dependent recall?
Recalling information in the same psychological state as when encoded
Name and explain a study into state-dependent recall
Found that heavy drinkers who learn things in a drunken state are more likely to recall them when drunk than sober
Why do organisation strategies work at improving memory?
Active processing of hierarchies and mnemonics requires semantic/meaningful thought.
State the main strength of research into strategies for memory improvement
Lab experiments are in a controlled environment, with control over the IV and external variables. A casual relationship can be assumed and reliability and internal validity improved