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1

What as the trueman doctrine

Set of ideas laid down by trueman to help support countries against communist influence. Main aim was to to contain communism

2

Results of trueman doctrine

By 1949 communist threat to Greece and Turkey was stopped
Showed us wasn’t going to isolate itself
Clear trueman would aim to stop communism from spreading

3

What was the marshal plan

Part of the European recovery program where the us lent billions of dollars of resource and aid to countries who had been damaged by the war

4

About Cominform and Comecon

Cominform - communist information burea
Comecon- communist econtomy

5

Why did Comecon and Cominform increas tension

The USA saw Cominform & Comecon as serious threats as they strengthened the Soviet‟s control over communist countries and also suggested that the Soviet Union wanted to spread communism.
They also strengthened the division of Europe between those in Cominform, controlled by the Soviet Union and those that were free.

6

About bizonia , trizonia and Deutschmark

1947 Britain and USA joined to make biozomia
France leather joined to make trizomia
23 June 1948 USA and Britain introduced new currency called Deutschmark - thus caused a crisis in the east as people rushed to change marks in to Deutschmarks

7

About Berlin blockade

24 June 1948 stalin blocked all roads , canal and railways that led to West Berlin

8

Why the blockade led to an increase in tension

massively increased tension as it showed how divided the USA and USSR were over Germany (Strong V weak)
 It led to the Berlin Airlift which showed Truman was determined to stand up to the Soviet Union and was serious about containment. Truman wanted Berlin to be a symbol of freedom behind the Iron Curtain.
 It convinced the allies that the Soviet Union was a threat and led to the creation of NATO in 1949 which turned the Cold War from an ideological conflict to one involving military alliances.

9

Why stalin blockaded Berlin

Creation of bizonia and trizomia
Deutschmark
Yalta and Potsdam
Trueman doctrine
Marshal plan
Thousands fleeing soviet zone

10

About Berlin airlift

26 June first flight
600 tones of resources were reaching Berlin each day
By spring 1949 80p0 tones a day be8ng flown in
As a result soviets cut of electrify to West Berlin

11

Results of Berlin crisis

79 British and us pilots killed
Showed how determined West was to resist communism

12

Events in China

1920s- struggle between nationalist lead by chiang kai shek and communis5 led by mao tse tung
Due to ww2 progress was left unchecked
After 24 leaders met for talks and both agreed on principles of democracy! Ipunified milirary and wpeyality for all party’s
However civil war broke out
Communists had strong support base and large military and sticks of weapons
USA continues to supply nationalist with fincacial aid
1947- nationalist accepted defeat and retreated
October 1949- communist establishes PRC
1950- links between China and USSR establishes and treaty of friendship, alliance and mutual assustbce signed

13

Events in Korea

As a result of Japan defeat in 223 they withdrew from Korea and was divided along 38th parellel amd split into north and south
1950- trueman introduces policy of NSC-68 which was designed not to contain but to roll it back and take action against communist counties
June 1950 under support of stalin invanded south and within 4 days Seoul has fallen under their control
After trueman order us forced to defend south
By October 1950 us had pushed communist back to 38 parallels
Us forces crossed 38 parallel in October and pushed communist back to Yalu river
Chinese attached us forces and pushed them back into hwar* of north and by 1951 has pushed them over 38 parelle into south
Trueman hinted at dropping bomb in China
March 1951 trueman consider making peace with Chinese but MacArthur disagreed and was dismissed
When ridgeway was appointed conflict reached stalemate and peace talks began
Stalemate existed till 1953 and trueman lost support back home for his agresssive actions and replaced by winsenhower. He signed and agreement in Korea to sease fighting and Korea remained divided

14

Results of Korean War

Hostility increased as conflict had spread past Europe e
China and USSR drew closer which strnchthend communism
Led to establishment of SEATO which was design s to contain communism in Asia
Korea was destroyed in terms of landscape and population
Country remained divided
Showed that the un was prepared to stand up to agrssion
China showed they were willing to stand up to western aggression

15

Events in Vietnam before 1946

Indochina was occupied by French however in ww2 Japanese pushed French out
Communist party under Ho Chi Minh created guerrila organisation to resist Japanese and work towards indochina independence .
Upon Japan’s defeat in ww2 they declears indochina independence and was divided into separate countries

16

Events in Vietnam after 1946

1946 French attacked Vietminh forces at Haiphong to reassert their control over Vietnam and French driven out
After French withdrawal at Geneva conference Vietnam split along 17 parellel into north led by Ho Chi Minh and south support d by ngo dinh Diem
1957 north created viet cong in south to stir up trouble as they wanted to invade south. Constructed Ho Chi Minh supply trail to keep armies in south supplied
1960 us aid increased
1964- 2 Vietnamese destroyers opens fire on a us destruer in gulf of Tonkin and as a consequence USA declared war on north and sent us troops to fight communists. Used a tactic called search and destroy and destyred hundreds of villages
1969- Ho Chi Minh died and president nikpxom south unsuccessful peace negotioms
Peace talks ended in March 1973 and cease fire was agreeded. Us troops withdre form Vietnam
1975- north invaded south and year later socialist republic of vuetnam decleard and was communist

17

About Nato

North Atlantic treaty organisation
n April 1949 NATO was formed. It was a defensive alliance meaning if one member was attacked all other members would defend it. However its main purpose was to prevent Soviet expansion.

18

Why Nato increase tension


 It increased the chances of an actual war as it meant that the USA could build air bases in Western Europe where planes equipped with nuclear bombs could be stationed ready for use.
 The Soviet Union saw it as an aggressive move as NATO was formed as an alliance against the Soviet Union.
 It led to the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a Soviet military alliance, which resulted in Europe being divided into two armed camps.

19

About arms race

When America dropped the atom bombs on Japan in 1945 a nuclear arms race started between the two superpowers.

In 1945 USA launched first atomic bomb
In 1949 the USSR exploded its first atomic bomb
Korean War - us spending on defence increased dorm 11b in 1948 to 50b in 1953
November 1952- us created hydrogen boom
1953-USSR created hydrogen bomb
1957- us upstarted using u2 spy planes
1957- USSR developed first ICBM
1963 August - nuclear test ban

20

Why arms race increased tensio

The arms race increased the climate of fear between the two superpowers.
 It created the possibility of a nuclear war when the two powers disagreed.

21

About Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact was a military alliance for mutual defence which the USSR signed along with Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, East Germany and Albania.
All the forces of the pact countries were placed under the leadership of the Soviet Union and Soviet troops were stationed in the countries of the pact.
It was formed when West Germany joined NATO in 1955 as the Soviet Union was concerned about the re-emergence of a strong Germany.

22

Why Warsaw Pact increased tension

It meant that Europe was now divided into two rival alliances and if there was a war all the countries in NATO and the Warsaw Pact would be involved. It made it look like the Cold War was going to be a permanent state.
 It increased the Soviet Union‟s power over its satellite states as it placed Soviet troops in those countries.
 It showed that even though there was a thaw in relations (following Stalin‟s death) Khrushchev was committed to maintaining the security of the communist states that surrounded the Soviet Union and the Soviet Union itself

23

Reasons for Hungarian revolution

Poland and Czech allowed more freedom which gave Hungarians false hope
Elections rigged in favour of communist
Harsh punishments for any resistance
Leader of Catholic Church imprisoned
Standards of living deterioted
Imre Nagy kicked out of government by rakoski

24

Why did lack of cultural freedom caused Hungarian revolution

Hungarians not allowed to talk about anything
Government controlled all films,radio,press and literature w
Very religions and soviets persecuted the Catholic Church
Children taught communist versions of their own Huston
Leader of communist church cardinal minszenty imprisoned

25

Why did poor standers of living cause revolution

Several food shortages because Russians indroduced collective farming to Hungary
Industrial workers paid poorly
Industrial good were sent to USSR

26

Why did soviet troops cause revolution

The AVO(Russian secret police) used methods of terror to get rid of polical opponents
Hungarians resented red army in their county
Premsece of troops made a bad atmosphere and made people feel uneasy

27

Events in Hungary

November 1945-election held but communists losts
1947- laszlo rajik hanged because he was seen as too open minded and as a result control tightened
1947- rigged elections and communist took over and banned other partys
1948-Yugoslavia broke away frim soviet control and gave hope to Hungary
1949- living standards deterioted and leader of Catholic Church was Imprisoned
1953- stalin died and Khrushchev took over and imposed a policy if destalosation and relaxed controls of communism. Khrushcev ordered rakosi to order and reformed called imre nagy
195t- rakosi threw Nagy out of government
1956 - Hungarians demanded indpendence and began setting up revolutionary councils to demand further reforms
June 1956- kh4ushchev gave Hungarians hope when he gave into polish rebellions and allowed reforms in Poland
July 1956- rakosi sacked as he thought this would stop demand
October 1956-imre Nagy made prime minster
4 November 1956- 200 000 soviet troops invaded Budapest to put down revolution and by end of the month had established a communist government under Janos Kadar
1958-imre Nagy execuepted as an example to those who rebelled

28

Space race - USSR

1957- soviet engineers stared building a rocket base of baykopyr
15 May 1957- tested first icbm
October 1957- launched Sputnik satellite on r-7 rocket
Novermebr 1957- launched Sputnik 2 and carried a dog called Laika
September 1959-Luna 2 reaches the moon
October 1959- pictured moon using Luna 3
12 April 1961- vostock rocket program sent yuri Gagarin into orbit on vostock 1
June 1963- first women in space Valentina Tereshkova
March 1965- first space walk by alexei Leonor on vostock 2

29

Space race USA

1950s- ike einsenhowe pr announced program of space exploration
1955- announced plans to develop satellite
January 1958- launched explorer 1 satellite
July 1958- formation of nasa
May 1961- Alan Shepard enter space a Kurd Mercury freeedom 7
February 1962- John glen orbited earth
June 1965- ed white did space walk with Gemini 6
July 1969- Apollo 2 landed Neil Armstrong on moon
1970s apologists 14 achieved first us exploration of moon

30

Why did Hungarian revolution fail

Lack of support from USA as they wanted to avoid war
Harsh actions and sheer strength of USSR
Hungarian rebelled ahd mo weapons
Lack of support from British or us and they were occupied by Egypt
Terror tactics by USSR