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Flashcards in Normans Deck (23)
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What was England’s economy like before 1066

Lots of natural resources so enabled trade links with other countries
Wealthy so a target for foreign invaders like vikings


What was the geography of England like before 1066

2 million people lived in England
Majority lived in south
South covered in thick dense forest


What was religion like in England before 1066

Central to their lives
Church was powerful
Church owned large areas of land
Made rules on everything


What was England’s government like before 1066

Divided into earldoms
Ruled by king edward since 1042


What was England’s society like before 1066

Political hierarchy
King - earls - clergy - peasants


What was England’s defence like before 1066

King and Earle’s commanded 2500-3000 housecarls
Had right to call on peasants to fight


When was king Edwards death

5th January 1066
Died childless


What were the Anglo Saxon rules of inheritances

Family ties
Post obitum - king could name a successor to take over when he dies
Novissima verba - king could name a successor on his deathbed
The witan


What was Harold Godwinsons claim to the throne

Edwards brother in law
Edward promised him throne on death bed- novissima verba
Had support of English nobles and witan


What was Edgar the aethelings claim to the throne

Great nephew of Edward
Only 15 so lacked experience


What was William duke of normandys claim to the throne

Cousin of king Edward through Emma
Claimed Edward promised him the throne in 1051
Claimed Harold Godwinson has sworn to support Williams claim over holy relics


What was Harold Hadradas claim to the throne

Related to king Cnut
Strong and powerful warrior


When was the battle of fulford

20 th September 1066


What happened at the battle of fulford

Hadrada and Tostigs army had around 7000 men
English lead by Edwin and morcar has around 3500 men
Hadrada won and the English army fled


When was the battle of Stamford bridge

25 September 1066


What happened at the battle of Stamford bridge

Marched his troops 190 Miles in 4 days
The Anglo Saxons launched a surprise attack on the vikings
Harold won and destroyed the Viking threat


What happened at the battle of Hastings

At 9am the Anglo Saxons formed a shield a wall. The normans fired arrows that failed to hit the Anglo Saxons
The normans launched a feigned retreat on the Anglo Saxons
William changed tactics and moved the archers to the front. The arrows hit the Anglo Saxons
The normans launched another feigned retreat and The Anglo Saxons shield Wall was Brocken apart
The normans killed the normans and Harold Godwinson
William won


Why did William win the battle of Hastings

Luck - the weather delayed Williams invasion, Williams army had time to rest before the battle, hardrada had invaded at the same time as William forcing Harold to fight at two ends of the country
Harold’s mistakes - Harold left his army because of the harvest, his army were tired from walking
Williams tactics - normans were well organised, he had Calvary


What happened at the Edwin and morcar rebellion

They led a rebellion in London immediately after the battle of Hastings but was put down by the normans.
They forced to swear an oath of loyalty to William and he allowed them to keep their lands


What happened at the revolt in Kent

Eustace, count of Boulanger attacked Dover castle.
He was easily defeated by the knights at the castle and made peace with William


What happened at the Exeter rebellion

Exeter rebelled in 1068
William besieged the city for 18 days
When Exeter surrender her built a castle and left his half brother in charge


What happened at the revolt of the Norman earls

Led by Ralph de Gael and roger de breteuil and waltheof
Bishop lanfranc put down the rebellion with force
Waltheof was beheaded and the other rebels were blinded and killed
Roger was imprisoned


What happened at the harrying of the north

William ordered slaughter of all livestock, burning of all crops and salting of the land so nothing could grow
As a result many peasants starved and many lived in fear