Colo-rectal Cancer Flashcards Preview

JL Gastrointestinal > Colo-rectal Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Colo-rectal Cancer Deck (40):
1

What is a benign colorectal neoplasia called and what is a maligant colorectal neoplasia called?

Adenoma - benign
Adenocarcinoma - malignant

2

What can be inflammatory, hamartomatous, metaplastic and neoplastic?

Colorectal polyps

3

What genes, when normal promote cell growth and division however, when mutated cause excess cell growth and division?

Oncogenes

4

What genes when normal suppress cell growth and division and when mutated allow cell growth and division?

Tumour suppressor genes

5

What 4 genes are involved in colo-rectal cancer?

1. APC
2. Kras
3. p53
4. 18qloss

6

What three macroscopic appearances does colorectal cancer have?

Polypoidal, ulcerative and annular

7

What colorectal neoplasm is tubular and villous?

Adenomas

8

What kind of colorectal neoplasm can be well or poorly differentiated?

Adenocarcinoma

9

What two staging methods are there for colorectal cancer?

Dukes and TNM

10

What does the D mean in Dukes staging?

Distant metastases

11

What do T1, T2, T3 and T4 mean in TNM staging?

T1 - submucosa only
T2 - into muscle
T3 - through muscle
T4 - adjacent structures (including peritoneum)

12

What do NO, N1 and N2 mean in TNM staging?

N0 - no lymph node involvement
N1 - 3 nodes involved

13

What two nodes can colorectal cancer spread to?

1. Periocolic nodes
2. Perivascular nodes

14

What kind of gene is LKB1?

Tumour suppressor

15

What is the inheritance like in colorectal cancer?

Autosomal dominant

16

What is FAP?

A mutation in APC gene

17

What is HNPCC?

Mutation in DNA mismatch repair gene

18

What two mutations give autosomal dominant inheritance in colorectal cancer?

FAP and HNPCC

19

Name two predisposing conditions for colorectal cancer?

Adenomatous polyps
IBD

20

Give 5 symptoms of colorectal cancer?

Anaemia, tenesmus, rectal bleeding, change of bowel habit and pain

21

What are three general clinical findings of colorectal cancer?

Anaemia
Chachexia
Lymphadenopathy

22

What are three abdomen clinical findings with colorectal cancer?

Mass
Hepatomegaly
Distension

23

What are two rectum clinical findings with colorectal cancer?

Mass and Blood

24

What are 4 methods of diagnosing colorectal primary disease?

1. Barium enema
2. CT colography
3. Sigmoidoscopy
4. Colonoscopy

25

What technique used in screening can detect 70% of cancers?

FOBT

26

Name two staging investigations for colorectal cancer regarding the lungs?

CXR or CT

27

Name 2 staging investigations for colorectal cancer regarding the liver?

US or CT

28

What two investigations can be done to stage primary rectal cancer?

CT or MRI

29

What are obstruction, bleeding, perforation, vomiting, pain, constipation and distension all signs of?

Emergency presentation of colorectal cacner

30

What three ways are there to treat obstruction in colorectal cancer?

Colostomy alone
Resection and colostomy
Stenting

31

What are right hemicolectomy, extended right hemicolectomy, transverse colectomy, left hemicolectomy, sigmoid colectomy and subtotal colectomy all used for?

Colonic cancer

32

Name three surgical methods for rectal cancer?

1. Abdomino-perineal excision
2. Anterior resection
3. Local excision

33

What agent is used for chemotherapy for colorectal cancer?

5-fluorouracil (5-FU)

34

What is an adjuvant for stage C colorectal cancer?

Chemotherapy

35

What are two new drugs for advanced colorectal cancer?

Oxaliplatin
Irinotecan

36

What are 2 biological agents used for advanced colorectal cancer?

Cetuximab
Bemab

37

What is Dukes class A?

Tumour confined to bowel wall (97% 5 year survival)

38

What is Dukes class B?

Tumour extends across bowel wall (80% 5 year survival)

39

What is Dukes class C?

Involvement of regional lymph nodes (48% 5 year survival)

40

How often are people screened?

Every 2 years for 60-75 using Faecal Occult Blood