Flashcards in Viral hepatitis Deck (44):
What id the chief or sole clinical manifestation of hepatitis viruses?
How is hepatitis A transmitted?
What hepatitis is related to poor hygiene and overcrowding?
In what patients is there peak incidence of symptomatic hepatitis A?
Older children and young adults
What are the two investigations for labaratory confirmation of hepatitis A?
1. Clotted blood for serology
2. Hepatitis A IgM
What are the two methods for control of hepatitis A?
What virus is more common in tropics, clinically like hepatitis A and has become more common than hep A in UK?
How is hepatitis E transmitted?
Where is the evidence of chronic hepatitis E infection?
Which virus is only found with hepatitis B?
What are three methods of transmission of hepatitis B?
2. Mother to child
What virus is likely with unscreened transfusions, needlesticks and tattoos?
What does the HBsAg indicate?
Patient is infected and infectious
What does anti-HBe indicate?
What is done in the laboratory to confirm hepatitis B?
How long does HBsAg have to be present for it to be chronic infection?
What is the Hep B virus DNA like in highly infectious individuals?
What hepatitis B cases have Hep B IgM present?
What are Anti-HBs present in?
What are two post-exposure prohpylaxis methods for hepatitis B?
2. plus HBIG (hyperimmune Hep B immunoglobulin)
What hepatitis virus has similar transmission to hepatitis B (e.g. sex etc)?
What should you test for if a patient is at risk of hepatitis C or with signs of chronic liver disease?
Test for antibody to hepatitis C virus
When testing for hepatitis C, if the antibody test comes back positive (past or active infection), what is the next step?
Test for hepatitis C virus RNA by PCR
If the test for hepatitis C virus RNA by PCR is negatie what does it mean, and if it is positive what does it mean?
Negative - past infection
Positive - active infection
Is there a vaccine for hepatitis C?
Once chronic hepatitis C infection is established, what is not seen?
What two factors should you monitor when managing acute viral hepatitis?
Who should be notified when there is an acute viral hepatitis case?
If cirrhotic, what vaccinations should be given to manage chronic viral hepatitis?
Influenza and pneumococcal
For patients with chronic viral hepatitis, how should hepatocellcular carcinomas be screened for?
1. Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography
What are the two main drugs used for chronic hepatitis B therapy?
What are tenofovir, lamivudine, telbivudine and interferon used in?
Chronic hepatitis B infection
In chronic hepatitis C infection, what is given with peg interferon alpha?
For treating chronic hepatitis infections, what to factors must be present?
1. HCV RNA present and genotype known
2. HBsAg and Hep B DNA present
What does increased ALT suggest?
Biochemical evidence of inflammation
What condition is a contraindication for hepatitis treatment?
What are four side effects of interferon alpha?
Flu like symptoms, autoimmune disease, psychosis, thyroid disease
What drug for hepatitis treatment is a human protein?
Give one side effect of ribavirin?
Give two side effects of telaprevir and boceprevir?
Rash and aneamia
What is the difference in end result with chronic hepatitis B infection using peginterferon or antiviral drugs?
Peginterferon - sustained cure possible
Antiviral - suppression
What are two conditions which can follow on from hepatitis B chronic infection?
Cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma
What is the aim of chronic hepatitis C therapy?
Response defined by loss of HCV RNA in blood sustained to 6 months after end of therapy