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IB Psychology HL > Command Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Command Terms Deck (15):
1

define

1-2 sentences
- give precise meaning of the term
- can use an example

2

describe

- detailed description with the main features of the concept
- NO analysis or explanation
- answer: "What is this?"

3

outline

- brief description with the main features
- shorter version of 'describe'

4

state

- write a specific name/technique/etc
- NO description or explanation

5

analyse

- detailed description with the main features of the concept
- break down complex concepts into essential parts and describe how these parts relate
- recognize underlying assumptions
- answer: "How does this work?"

e.g. analyse serotonin as a possible etiology of depression:
- explain neurotransmission
- explain serotonin's effect on human behaviour
- break the answer down into three parts: what causes it, what it does in the context of the question, what the implications of the effects are

6

apply

- use the knowledge you have about a principle or method and make it clear when and where it is used

Sample question: how is a particular method applied in research at the cognitive level of analysis?

7

distinguish

show that you understand the differences between two or more concepts or terms in psychology

8

explain

- describe + explain
- include background info/reasons for something
- answer: “What is ________ and why does it happen?”

NOTE: 'explain' + 'advantages and disadvantages' = state and outline any advantages and disadvantages AND explain why they are considered positive/negative

9

discuss

- describe + explain
- include background info/reasons for every point
- give a balanced review offering evaluative comments about the issue you are discussing
- discuss your own opinions and evidence to support your opinions

when discussing a theory/model:
• state strengths and limitations with empirical evidence AND evaluate those empirical studies
• discuss the usefulness of a certain theory by mentioning possible applications and how effective and universal these applications are
• compare to an alternative theory
• discuss the extent to which the theory can be universally applied – are the explanations culturally- or gender-specific?
• evaluate sources: is the theory based on methodologically questionable empirical evidence?

NOTE: 'discuss' + 'advantages and disadvantages' = provide clear judgment about whether the advantages or disadvantages are most significant, then explain reasons for your opinion

10

evaluate

- describe + explain
- include background info/reasons for every point
- give your own judgment and opinion supported by evidence
- while discussing strengths and limitations, make clear comments about its significance, usefulness (e.g. how applicable it is, its usefulness in explaining sth), accuracy

when evaluating a theory/model:
• discuss the extent to which the theory can be universally applied – are the explanations culturally- or gender-specific?
• evaluate strengths and limitations of methodology
• judge validity and reliability
• discuss sampling method and relate to the issue of generalizability of findings
• assess if the study has cultural, ethical, and gender considerations

11

examine

- hardcore ver of "analysis"
- give detailed information that reveals underlying assumptions or the interaction of various factors
- make judgments supported by evidence
- discuss the relative importance of different factors to the basic term/concept under consideration
- give a detailed description accompanied by a clear, thorough, and organized reflection of the matter

when examining a theory/model:
• distinguish the components of a certain theory and discuss how they relate to one another
- discuss principles underlying the theory and how specific research methods influence data collection

when examining how certain factors influence human behaviour:
• describe these factors
• judge their relative importance
• discuss their interaction

12

to what extent

- discuss the validity of an argument
- give both sides of the argument
- give judgment by emphasizing the strengths of some arguments over others
- give judgment on the relative importance of factors (biological/cognitive/sociocultural), on the theory/behaviour: how important is ____? Why is it ____? Is it culture- or gender-specific?
- present all opinions with evidence

13

compare

- identify, describe, explain and discuss how two or more concepts, research methods or theories are similar to each other
- include reasons why they are similar and discuss the extent of this similarity

14

compare and contrast

- explain + discuss how 2+ concepts are similar to each other
- include reasons why they are similar and a discussion of the extent of this similarity

15

contrast

- identify, describe, explain and discuss how two or more concepts, research methods or theories differ
- include reasons why they are different and discuss the extent of this difference

Decks in IB Psychology HL Class (60):