Flashcards in Commemoration and Scandinavia during WW2 Deck (58)
Positive impact for Denmark
Danish allies to be placed in line with Allies in the United Nations an idea firmly placed in Danish consciousness.
Situation in Denmark during the occupation
the Danish maintained a fully backed government. No german administrative body present in Denmark and all work in Denmark by Germany was done by diplomatic services . The relation with Germany came to entail both elements of resistance and cooperation.
Germanic expansion... but consequences
Germans looked to include Denmark in the Germanic country expansion- tried to deport jews after a rejection of the death penalty by the Danes and several other extremist measures that Hitler sought to introduce.
Demands made by the German gov- relaxed
negotiated- i.e. they did not have to be followed with immediacy. Furthermore a fairly relaxed policy on freedom of expression was retained by the Danes.
agricultural production in Denmark
Denmark was allowed to keep a large proportion of its agricultural production to such an extent that their rations were a higher proportion to those of the germans.
Cost of occupation on Denmark
The occupation only cost Denmark 15% of its gross national product
Eventhough the occupation was regarded as humiliating by the Danish community- they were willing to give in to the pressure in order to achieve the goal of sparing the people from the effects of war. - this point divided the people
Type of defence
There was no need for a defence against natzification rather purely an attack against the military forces. The early efforts made after 1943 saw the political cooperation between the two sides to an end
Danish illegal press heightened the awareness of Danish resistance- they used the strikes in copenhagen in 1944 as a tool for raising awareness.
Crimes by Hitler in Denmark/ crimes in general
to kill random civilians not associated with the resistance. Crimes dictated by Nazi slogans- not german interests.
Two goals for the Danes
protect the people and be recognised as an ally were achieved.
headed the Norwegian government during the occupation of Germany
When did it change for Denmark
1943 when a series of strikes informally showed the rejection of the policy of cooperation- Danish jews all had to flee to Sweden- the assistance was a genuine manifestation of the detest of antisemitism- many fisherman coming back from Sweden were prosecuted on the account that they had helped the jews escape- this was very often not strictly true.
Quisling coup d'état
Quisling declared a coup d’etat in april 1939 after talks with Hitler in Berlin and Hitler was angry that they hadn't surrendered to the German ultimatum to surrender. His coup only lasted 6 days
Effect of the coup on the nature of the resistance in Norway
Changed it to a ideological struggle rather than simply a mil one
appointed from the inner circle- a man concerned with gaining political comeback more than anything else
Norwegian politicians happy to
the politicians in Norway were happy to apply a collaborationist approach provided that the democratic parties could remain with the overriding influence once in power- this was overiden though
He declared the gov and king in exile and banned all political influence
Allowed Quisling back in after his failures in the Coup
Rapid expansion of NS membership in 1940 along with street rallies and increased propaganda . The NS launched arms bearing initiatives for all Norwegian men but resistance was directed against these initiatives - including against forced labour
army established- backed with armaments by the British
Until when had the collaboration been considered legitimate?
up until the summer of 1940- much shorter period than in french and denmark
Establishment of a Home Front
containing passive resistors, full time illegals and also the saboteur or spy. Took several years for this to form
Most of the resistance was directed at
Most of the resistance was also directed at the NS rather than seizing power.
Tensions existed between
communists and communists
The period has come to be viewed as mythical
detached from the chronological time line and viewed in an eternal form
only one view of the occupation
created by the resistance community itself. All activity that took place has been placed under what can be called resistance.
The 50th anniversary
entailed huge street parties and all the survivors mobilising in support of what happened. No public reconciliation took place with the Germans.
Norwegians not divided
but rather split - one outside the community of the nation and the nation itself.
became the national symbol of resistance.