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role of

entrepreneurs in world politics


One perspective of the EU

seen as a way for smaller states to become part of a larger society and decision making process that will ultimately aim to have a positive impact on their economy and status.


In the absence of a Nordic input

there is a possibility that issues such as gender equality and environmental activism due to their continued influence in these fields.


EFTA- SND joined this in 1959

It enabled tariff free trade without handing over sovereignty to the European institutions.


European authority- Policy cooperations centres itself on

agricultural production, common energy and military cooperation.


By 1995 Sweden was keen to gain access to the EU

because neutrality and non market integration were seen as being non favourable in an increasingly globalising world


Norway in 1994 on the EU

anti European movement in Norway remained victorious


Finns on EU

The Finns have been the most pro EU out of the Scandinavian countries- they were the first to join the Euro and after their split with the soviet union their employment levels dropped and they favoured market integration as a way of stabilising the economy.


Presidency of EU

For six months at a time the countries of Sweden, Denmark and Finland have all had an influential role in the decision making. Sweden wanted to improve environmental standards and transparency whilst Denmark prioritised enlargement negotiations for ten new states.


How did Finland demonstrate its influence when holding Presidency?

forcing the EU’s attentions to the northern area of Europe where resources could be exploited but also where borders could be strengthened- this is the Northern Dimension


During the Danish presidency

Looked to help non member countries to ratify the Kyoto protocol in 1992 and also make sure nations were keeping in line with UN recommendations for aid.


Norway and Iceland separate themselves on

the practicing of Whaling- their practices are see as no longer acceptable by other western nations whereas it has been allowed, as long as sustainable, the respective governments- it maintains a sense of identity and is a strong source of income.


Norwegian stance on whaling in the 90s

Norwegians resumed whaling criticising the IWC for letting the decisions be made by environmentalists.


Danish referendum on EU in the 90s

50% voted against the integration


Inter- scandi coop

Attempts to build stronger unity and cooperation within the scandinavian community in the 20th century- the failure of the Nordic nations to build a nordic customs union and to build a Scandinavian defence alliance both failed. - instead much of the foreign policy in the Nordic states can be characterised by nationalist interests


The failure of the Scandinavian defence alliance

an be attributed to the lack of cooperation between leaders- Norway favoured cooperation with the US whilst the political nature of each country varied.


Impact of war period on integration

The initial feeling was one of increased sovereignty- animosity held between Sweden and Norway whilst Denmark believed that they could maintain sovereignty especially after their success in their resistance


Finland and Iceland on NATO

In Finland they never really had the opportunity to join NATO due to previous Soviet relations- they are now a partner country


the years 1989-1991

were generally seen as a major european turning point- Berlin wall came down, the end of the cold war. During the cold war the Scandinavian countries were wary of USSR prominence and despite the death of Stalin there were Hungarian uprisings years later that dashed hopes of cooperation .


Norway and Iceland joined the EEA-

meaning that their was no imposition on sovereignty and also the economic integration could be maintained- for Iceland it meant no restrictions like fishing quotas.


Denmark referenda

held the highest number of referenda on the matter


The main argument for european integration

has long been economic prosperity- the nature of an increasingly capitalist world has meant that many of the businesses backed european integrations in favour of the trade is secured. The swedes also saw it as a way of reversing the effects of what they saw as an over taxed economy.


Religion has played a small role in the reluctance to integrate into Europe

he Nordic countries are protestant as opposed to the drives of integration who have been typically catholic democrats. There was also no state of hostility, as there was between France and Germany, to overcome.


By 1990 what was the overall export of all trade to the soviet union by the Finns?

5% of all trade went to the SU whereas in the 80s it had been a figure around 20%.- supported their bid to join the EU.


In Norway and Denmark the eurosceptics

were equally against those conspiring to integrate into the EU as they were about the prospects of loosing sovereignty.


Mobilisation for the 1994 Norwegian referendum

was 12% higher than that of the 1972 election- showing that the importance of the issue had not been diminished.


he 2000 referendum in Denmark on the Euro

was clearly a ‘nationalisation’ of Euroscepticism- whereas previously the sceptics had been linked to poor education and poorer economic backgrounds, the votes now highlighted a consistent anti Europe sentiment.


In Sweden the ‘no’ campaign

managed to persuade people that it was still possible to reject the Euro without it meaning you were rejecting Europe too- they employed a ‘wait and see’ tactic that seemed to work in 2006.


Role of the Scandinavian countries in european peace keeping

Sweden inspected Saddam Hussains weapons to find that there was no weapon of mass destruction- the Finnish prime minister also was responsible for constructing the good Friday agreement in Northern Ireland


humanitarian work

all barring Finland boycotted the 1980 Moscow olympics over Soviet imposition in Afghanistan. This humanitarian work is further supported in the Swedish involvement in Vietnam.