Flashcards in Migration Deck (31)
Between 1870 and 1910
just over 1 million, 1/5 f the population, moved abroad. In 1980 the Swedish emigration rates were only passed by Norway and Ireland.
believed that the emigration solved issues like overpopulation and demographic pressures.
Most emigrants emigrated from
the south and west of Sweden- the rate of emigration also varied and after the point of 1893 it decreased.
Emigration partly linked to economy
during the years of the 1870s and 90s there was a period of economic strength and growth in the west of Europe while there were downswings in the US- contrarily in the 80s and early years of the 20th century there were periods of economic growth in the US and decrease in economic development in Europe.
were less sensitive to business fluctuations- their jobs such as being maid and sewing were less effected by the business growth and loss
Majority of immigrants were
unmarried males and between 16 - 35 years of age
Between 81 and 1910 the average yearly rates of immigration averaged
between 7 and 10 per thousand inhabitants that immigrated.
Took place much later due to the population rise in the south which forced them to move north. Also it was die to the decline in the saw mill and forestry industry.
friends and relative factor
people from one Parish would leave one year and then the next year there would be friends from neighbouring parishes leaving.- easier to make a life changing decision in the company of friends. They could also contribute to travel costs by sending money home- 50% of people departing from gothenburg in the 80s were on prepaid tickets.
explaining why migrants were often of the age where they were not married
the agricultural output also had an impact
higher animal output- which was the case in this period- was less demanding than that of grain production- hence why the demand for jobs went down and thus more people emigrated.
Crops vs livestock increase factor
The number of cattle units per hectare increased by 16% - in addition, a large part of the the crops, increasing by 40% was oat production which was directed at feeding the animals
Gustaf Unionius was an example of the effect of literature - when he returned to Sweden in 1958 he was keen to tell his story of the trials and tribulations that he faced and his memoires appearing in two parts were well received- this is coupled with the rise in literacy and the effects of the enlightenment period which saw people become aware of agency and the idea of travel
Chicago- increasing numbers of families went there
onsiderable factor in the rise in emigration- however the ease with which one could get there was not ideal- many people were squashed into small rooms and had to provide food for themselves.
Homestead act 1862
anyone who had never bore arms against the USA could get up to 160 Acres of undeveloped land. This was a huge advert for immigrants.
by the end of the civil war, what was the impact of the homestead act
nearly 10% of all govenrnment owned land was the property of new land owners- nearly 1.6million successful applications were approved by the end of the civil war.
Final claim for land made
The gradual mechanisation of agriculture
led to the replacement of individual homesteads- therefore it can be said that industrialisation on both sides of the Atlantic were factors in increasing and decreasing their respective populations
conscription gradually became of more importance, especially since the quality of the Swedish military was wavering. It was illegal to immigrate in Sweden if eligible for conscription. this factor came in to play during the later years of te 19th century
By 1894 conscription consideration permission slips
Were harder to obtain.
In addition to this compulsory military service was prolonged and this may have indeed increased desire amongst ex soldier to flee.
Swedish emigration services/ agencies
struggled to rival those of Denmark- which to its geographical placement to Sweden indeed did lure emigrants with the idea that arriving to the United States was no longer half the battle. - Trondheim served as a major port for emigration.
Notable brothers involved in the agency sector
Shipping provider cooperation
cooperate so that business could be maintained- they decided on specific routes as not to take competition and they established a controlling body that regulated progress. - the effects of this were reduced ticket prices and increased rates of travel- meaning that more people were able to move.
Main states where immigrants were based
Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, and western Wisconsin formed the nucleus of the first Swedish settlements
the Lutheran Augustana Synod was by far the largest organisation in the USA. Nearly a quarter of all Swedes were members of a religious group
Impact on structure for well being
hey founded colleges and hospitals and today a number of colleges can trace their origins back to Swedish immigrants- Bethal college in Minnesota North Park in Chicago to name a few.
Between 600 and 1000 swedish language newspapers were published jn the United states- the Swedish American press was the second largest foreign language newspaper at one time in the early 20th century.
In the 2000 US census
around 4 million people responded with Swedish as their ancestors- many of the Swedes in the states are now 3rd generation immigrants.