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Flashcards in Conditions/how to treat Deck (34):
1

SAMPLE history

Signs/symptoms, allergies-medications-pertinent medical history-last intake-events leading up to event

2

OPQRST

onset-point/provocation-quality-radiation-severity-timing

3

Symptoms of diabetes

3 P's: polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia; important to check blood sugar & see when last food/drink intake was

4

Hypoglycemia

commonly seen in type I diabetics; AMS, cool, weak, tachycardia; treat with glucose!, can mimic a stroke

5

Tachycardia

abnormal heart impulses leads to increased heart rate

6

Hyperglycemic emergencies

DKA (Type I diabetes)
HHNS (Type II)
Treatment: check blood glucose, give insulin if high, hydration

7

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

patients with Type I break down fats as energy- ketones produced; Symptoms: 3 P's, fruity/acetone breath, AMS, nausea/vomiting, rapid/deep respirations; check blood glucose, make sure patent airway, give oxygen if needed

8

Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS)

patients with Type II DM, cells resistant to insulin so VERY high blood sugar results; symptoms: 3 P's, no acetone/fruity breath, normal respirations, nausea/vomiting; check blood glucose

9

Anaphylactic reaction

strong allergic reaction; serious, rapid onset; symptoms: compromised respirations/constricted airway, low blood pressure, skin/mucosal tissue reaction; treatment: Epi pen- reverses histamine release/effects of anaphylaxis

10

JVD

Jugular Vein Distension; bulging neck vein, sign of heart issues/heart failure

11

Respiratory distress

irregular breathing: rate, rhythm, quality; Positive Pressure ventilation if needed, supplemental oxygen

12

Shock

failure of circulatory system to supply oxygen throughout body; give high concentration O2; give blankets to maintain body heat, rapid transport; 3 types- hypovolemic (loss of blood), cardiogenic (heart not pumping well- could be MI/heart attack), or vasodilatory

13

AMS

could be due to hypoglycemia (check glucose), hypoxia (check oxygen), or stroke

14

Ischemic Stroke

need to check timing; give thrombolytic medication if stroke was within 3-4 hours; check for airway obstruction; suspect stroke in patients with AMS; do FAST stroke test; check glucose, give oxygen-brain needs this, ventilation; constantly checking ABC's

15

Hemorrhagic stroke

quick onset- can be fatal in short period of time; no thrombolytic meds; headaches, AMS, nausea/vomiting

16

Seizure management

after seizure- ensure patent airway: use OPA or NPA if needed; if lasts >5 min give oxygen, ventilation

17

ventricular fibrillation

problem with heart rhythm; electrical activity is chaotic and doesn't lead to sufficient contractions; shockable by an AED

18

ventricular tachycardia (v tach)

abnormal electrical signals in the ventricles cause the heart to beat faster than normal; shockable by an AED

19

non-shockable rhythms

asystole and pulseless electrical activity

20

deep vein thrombosis

blood clot in a deep vein, usually in the legs, may lead to pain and swelling

21

angina pectoris

chest pain, triggered by emotional events or physical exertion

22

pulmonary edema

fluid buildup in the lungs, can be a result of cardiac problems

23

status epilepticus

multiple seizure in a row without a gap; can be life threatening

24

febrile seizure

common in young children; high fever in the setting of an infection

25

petit mal seizure

brief lapses of attention/awareness

26

myocardial ischemia

blood flow to heart is reduced, so heart does not receive sufficient oxygen, usually due to plaque in coronary arteries supplying the heart, precursor to MI

27

myocardial infarction

severe obstruction preventing oxygen from supplying the heart, resulting in cell death of heart cells

28

heart failure symptoms

lower BP, shortness of breath (fluid buildup in lungs), swelling in feet and legs, difficulty sleeping, JVD

29

CHF treatment

oxygen/PPV if needed, diuretics to reduce fluid in lungs, nitroglycerin to reduce work of heart

30

pulmonary embolism

blood clot blocks major artery in lungs; clot often travels from the legs up to the lungs; causes difficulty breathing and chest pain while breathing, cough up bloody sputum, increased heart rate, leads to right sided heart failure, hypoxia, cyanosis, AMS; give oxygen

31

COPD

also called chronic bronchitis, inflammation and gunk in bronchioles makes it hard to breathe out- not exchanging enough CO2

32

inhalers

dilate the bronchioles, metered dose inhaler

33

epiglotitis

mostly in children, upper respiratory problem, stridor

34

pneumothorax

collapsed lung- air leaks in space between lung and chest; absence of breath sounds on one side, JVD, hypotension, can occur due to forceful rescue breaths