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Flashcards in Trauma Deck (43):

traction splints

used to counterbalance the pulling force of the muscles to reduce pain and prevent bleeding; immobilizes fractured limb to prevent further injury; used for femur fractures


rigid splints

made of plastic, wood, cardboard to hold injured body part in a comfortable position


compartment syndrome

after injury- bleeding and inflammation in the surrounding tissues causes pressure increases outside the blood vessels; excessive pressure can cut off blood supply to that area, making those cells hypoxic





neurogenic shock

also called neurogenic hypertension; results from injury to spinal cord that interupts nerves; without nerve imput, arteries dilate-->hypotensive, normal HR, skin is warm and flushed, disruption of autonomic pathways within spinal cord; different from hypovolemic shock because pulse/HR is normal rather than elevated and skin is warm and pink


subdermal hematoma

buildup of blood between dura and arachnoid layers from veins rupturing under dura; slow bleeding; pressure builds and pushes on brain, may not see symptoms for a few days


epidermal hematoma

bleeding between skull and dura layer; emergency situation; usually skull fractures are seen as well because only occurs with large force to head; rapid arterial and venous bleeding



penetration wound


basilar skull fracture symptoms

raccoon eyes, Battle's sign, CSF leakage


Cushing reflex

a reflex used when intracranial pressure is high after head injury to relieve this pressure: late sign of high ICF; leads to Cushing's triad: increased blood pressure, decreased heart rate, irregular breathing



layers of tissue protecting the brain; dura, arachnoid, pia


consensual reflex

when you shine a light in one eye, both eyes should constrict, not just eye that was hit with light


nonpurposeful reactions to pain

indicates deep state of unresponsiveness; 2 types: flexion-flex arms across chest and extend legs, and extension- arms down at side, extend legs, arch back


potential signs of brain herniation

significant dilation of pupils more than 4mm, asymmetrical pupils, unresponsiveness to painful stimuli



involuntary erection seen in males who undergo spinal shock


pericardial tamponade

fluid buildup in pericardial space within sac around the heart; puts pressure on the heart which decreases ventricular filling- decreases CO; Aka Beck's triad: JVD, weak pulse, drop in blood pressure (Paradoxus); treatment: pericardiocentesis- put a needle in and suck air out


Types of closed soft tissue injuries

Contusion (bleeding of dermal blood vessels), hematoma, crush injury


Types of open soft tissue injuries

Laceration, penetration/puncture, abrasion (capillary bleeding on surface), crush injury, avulsion (loose flap of skin), amputation



deformities, contusions, abrasions, puncture burns, tenderness, lacerations, swelling


multiple casualty incident (MCI)

not enough resources to deal with the patient load from an emergency; open MCI if easy access to situation site; closed if situation site is difficult to get to and get patients out of


active situation/incident

the force that caused the disaster is still going on; there is danger to anyone in the area- including first responders


closed situation

forces that led to the accident is contained/exhausted


3 stages of triad

1. triage of patients, label with tag
2. treatment of patients after moving to safe area
3. Only if needed- treatment at field hospital created on site


Color scheme- Triage

Red- critical condition, needs treatment immediately, but with treatment has good chance of survival; Yellow- delayed/urgent, no signs of shock but may die if no treatment soon; Green- no major injuries; Black- dead, no signs of life/ability to save them


START triage

Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment; initial assessment for each patient takes no longer than 30 seconds; initial treatment should only focus on life threatening conditions


RPM's of triage

3 things to check: Respirations- open airway, if not breathing still- label black, if RR >30 or <10, label as red, move on to "P" if between 10-30; next assess Perfusion-if no pulse or capillary refill >2, label as red, if has pulse and cap. <2, check Mental status: If unconscious or AMS or can't follow simple commands, label as red. If able to follow simple commands, label as yellow. "30, 3, can do"



respiratory impairment due to submersion in water; classified as death, morbidity, no morbidity; lack of ventilation leads to hypoxia and the cardiac arrest; symptoms: cough, apnea or dyspnea, AMS or LOC, vomiting


Aspirated water and drowning

10-20% of drowning patients don't aspirate any water, due to laryngospasm; victims that do aspirate water usually aspirate only a little bit; aspirated water can wash off surfactant- leads to alveoli collapse-respiratory arrest


ABCDE's of trauma

airway, breathing, circulation, disability (GCS), exposure (remove clothing)



central cavity inside the chest, contains trachea, heart, major vessels, esophagus


lobes of the lungs

right has 3, left has 2


Pleural space

potential space between the parietal pleura (lines thoracic cavity) and visceral pleura (covers the lungs); usually this space does not contain anything; if air gets in space-pneumothorax, if blood gets in space-hemothorax


2 types of chest injuries

penetrating/open: something goes through you (gunshot, stabbing), blunt/closed: extreme force causes injury usually to multiple body systems


pulmonary contusion

bruise of the lungs; blossoms (gets larger) with time; give oxygen and ventilation


Flail chest

3 or more ribs fractured in 2 or more places; have a floating segment that has paradoxical motion- floating segment moves independently of main ribs; ventilation/O2 if needed; monitor for pneumothorax, bulky dressing


subcutaneous emphysema

bubble wrap/rice krispies- air gets trapped under the skin as result of rupture of part of airway; suspect pneumothorax until proven otherwise



air accumulation in pleural space, lung fails to oxygenate blood and may collapse; 2 types- open: penetrating injury goes all the way through to the lungs, more and more air gets trapped; closed: blunt injury, skin not broken, could be from rib hitting lung; can remove air with chest tube or three sided dressing (flutter valve)


tension pneumothorax

can be open or closed; tension physiology- worsening of pneumothorax leads to completely collapsed lung, cuts off blood flow to the heart, increased pressure can displace mediastinum cavity; symptoms: hypotension, tracheal deviation, heart compressed from increased pressure, hypoxia, unequal chest rise, JVD, absent breath sounds on affected side, severe dyspnea, tachypnea


treatment tension pneumothorax

vent occlusive dressing, needle or finger decompression: create second hole to help let air out, second intercostal space midclavicular line



blood fills pleural space usually due to lacerated blood vessel; can't use decompression- need to put in a chest tube, 5th intercostal space mid axillary line


cardiac contusion

bruise of the heart, causes chest pain and arrhythmia/tachycardia, heart cell death, irregular pulse



inadequate blood flow to organ or part of body; 5 P's of ischemia: pain, pulselessness, paralysis, paresthesia (tingling sensation), pallor


peripheral nerve injury

nerves injured more easily than arteries; symptoms include tingling (paresthesia, numbness, pain, loss of motor ability)