pediatrics Flashcards Preview

First responders > pediatrics > Flashcards

Flashcards in pediatrics Deck (23):
1

Heart rate/pulse across age

Decreases with age; neonates have fastest pulse; find brachial pulse in infants and radial pulse in children

2

Blood pressure across age

Increases with age

3

Respiratory rate

Decreases with age

4

Primary assessment

ABC's, pediatric assessment triangle, AVPU

5

Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT)

method to quickly get a general impression/identify a sick child; 3 sides: Appearance TICLS- look at muscle tone, interactiveness, consolability, look/gaze, speech/cry; Work of Breathing, Circulation of Skin (look for cynosis, mottled skin, pallor (unhealthy, pale skin)

6

Respiratory distress

normal appearance, abnormal work of breathing, normal circulation to skin

7

Respiratory failure

abnormal appearance, abnormal work of breathing, normal or abnormal circulation; either the respiratory rate or tidal volume is inadequate

8

compensated shock

normal appearance, normal work of breathing, abnormal circulation

9

uncompensated shock

abnormal appearance, normal or abnormal breathing, abnormal circulation

10

Poor brain perfusion/brain injury

abnormal appearance, abnormal work of breathing, abnormal circulation

11

Pediatric Glasgow Coma Sclale

Eye opening (to various commands), Motor Response, and Verbal response- each of the 3 categories gets a score; scale used is similar to AVPU

12

Airway and respiratory problems in pediatrics

airway/ventilation is most important- greatest cause of mortality; compensatory mechanisms for respiratory distress work at maximum until exhausted, then rapid deterioration; look for increased resp. rate, nasal flaring, use of neck or accessory muscles, audible breathing noises; encourage child/infant to cough if airway obstruction, give oxygen

13

respiratory arrest

resp. rate of less than 10 per minute or no breathing at all; abnormal appearance (unresponsive, limp), abnormal work of breathing (decreased, not breathing), abnormal circulation

14

mild foreign body obstruction

encourage infant/child to cough, have them sit in comfortable position, NO intervention to remove mild obstruction, provide oxygen

15

severe airway obstruction

unable to cough/make sound; place in prone position and provide 5 back slaps between shoulders, then flip to supine position and 5 chest thrusts using two fingers; repeat until obstruction removed or unconscious

16

airway obstruction in unconscious infant

open the airway, look in mouth for object, 2 breaths, then CPR; every 30 compressions look in airway for dislodged object

17

child with severe airway obstruction

perform the Heimlich until object removed or child unconscious; if unconscious, perform CPR and look in airway in between compression sets

18

Croup

infection of upper airway (larynx, trachea, bronchi) caused by bacteria or virus; swelling beneath the glottis, swelling/narrowing of airway makes it hard to breathe; stridor, hoarseness, fever, cough; hydration and give oxygen

19

Bronchiolitis

causes by a virus; the bronchioles get inflamed; wheezing when exhaling

20

Shock indications in children

Systolic BP<70, tachycardia, cool skin

21

epiglottitis

inflammation of the epiglottis, caused by bacterial infection, rapid onset; symptoms: fever, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), stridor; can lead to total airway obstruction- give oxygen/ventilation

22

major upper airway diseases

croup, epiglottitis, choking

23

major lower airway diseases

pneumonia, asthma, bronchiolitis; reduce stress, give O2