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Flashcards in ob/gyn Deck (21):
1

antepartum emergencies

occur in pregnant women prior to onset of delivery; often involve heavy hemorrhage

2

spontaneous abortion/miscarriage

delivery of the fetus and placenta before fetus is viable (able to survive); most occur in first trimester; symptoms: cramps/abdominal pain, severe vaginal bleeding, passage of blood/tissue clots

3

placenta previa

placenta implants near the opening of the cervix, rather than above the fetus, causing placenta to pre-maturely be torn from the uterus when cervix dilates for delivery and cause a lot of bleeding; may obstruct the fetus from coming out; symptoms: heavy vaginal bleeding, but no pain

4

abrupteo placentae

arteries between placenta and uterus rupture, causing placenta to split from the uterine wall prematurely- causes severe bleeding and prevents exchange of nutrients between placenta and fetus; if complete abruption, 100% fetal mortality rate; if partial abruption, mortality rate correlated with degree of tear; may or may not be vaginal bleeding- if fetus is blocking vaginal canal, it may block the high volume of internal bleeding from coming out; symptoms of hypovolemic shock

5

ruptured uterus

weakening of uterine wall due to stretching/enlargement of the uterus during pregnancy causes uterus to rupture; fetus slips out into abdominal cavity; risk factors: previous c-section, trauma, prior rupture

6

ectopic pregnancy

egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube; as fetus and placenta grow, there is not enough room resulting in the rupture of surrounding tissue; causes severe hemorrhage that may be fatal for mom and fetus; signs of shock are present

7

preeclampsia

pregnancy induced high blood pressure and swelling in the abdomen, pulmonary edema (swelling), visual changes, and protein found in the urine (and decreased urine); generally in 3rd trimester; second leading cause of maternal death (along with eclampsia); can occur up to 20 days postpartum

8

eclampsia

includes the symptoms of preeclampsia but is more severe and includes coma or seizures

9

supine hypotensive syndrome

weight of fetus in 3rd trimester presses down on inferior vena cava- results in less blood flow entering right atrium-decreased stroke volume-decreased cardiac output

10

first stage of labor

Dilation: from when the contractions begin to when cervix is fully dilated- fetus enters dilated cervix from uterus; amniotic sac ruptures before or during this stage

11

second stage of labor

Expulsion: begins with complete cervical dilation; ends with delivery of the baby; baby moves through the vagina until crowing occurs- baby sticks head out; after crowning occurs, mom pushes with each contraction

12

third stage of labor

delivery of placenta; mom continues having contractions until placenta comes out

13

nuchal cord

umbilical cord is wrapped around infant's neck

14

prolapsed cord

umbilical cord appears at entrance to birth canal before head of baby; cord can get pressed against uterine wall by fetus, cutting off oxygen supply to baby- big emergency

15

breech birth

lower extremities of fetus start coming out first; comes out upside down

16

meconium

fetus has bowel movement while in the amniotic fluid, if deprived of O2; if meconium debris is inhaled by fetus, may result in infection or pneumonia; suction mouth and trachea

17

treatment of eclampsia/preeclampsia

place in dark, quiet room; left lateral recumbent position; use quiet voice; give suction and O2 if seizure

18

neonatal care- APGAR

appearance-pulse-grimace-activity-respirations

19

birth asyphyxia

major cause of newborn death; unable to get enough oxygen, baby isn't able to breathe

20

neonatal ABC's

Airway-place in sniffing position, suction if needed; Breathing- give O2 if needed/BVM (40-60 breaths per min); Circulation- take pulse (apical, umbilical, or brachial), compressions if needed

21

neonatal chest compressions

1 finger below nipple line; perform if already did BVM for 30 seconds and HR<60; ratio is 3:1; reassess every 30 sec- if HR>60, then stop compressions