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Flashcards in ob/gyn Deck (21):

antepartum emergencies

occur in pregnant women prior to onset of delivery; often involve heavy hemorrhage


spontaneous abortion/miscarriage

delivery of the fetus and placenta before fetus is viable (able to survive); most occur in first trimester; symptoms: cramps/abdominal pain, severe vaginal bleeding, passage of blood/tissue clots


placenta previa

placenta implants near the opening of the cervix, rather than above the fetus, causing placenta to pre-maturely be torn from the uterus when cervix dilates for delivery and cause a lot of bleeding; may obstruct the fetus from coming out; symptoms: heavy vaginal bleeding, but no pain


abrupteo placentae

arteries between placenta and uterus rupture, causing placenta to split from the uterine wall prematurely- causes severe bleeding and prevents exchange of nutrients between placenta and fetus; if complete abruption, 100% fetal mortality rate; if partial abruption, mortality rate correlated with degree of tear; may or may not be vaginal bleeding- if fetus is blocking vaginal canal, it may block the high volume of internal bleeding from coming out; symptoms of hypovolemic shock


ruptured uterus

weakening of uterine wall due to stretching/enlargement of the uterus during pregnancy causes uterus to rupture; fetus slips out into abdominal cavity; risk factors: previous c-section, trauma, prior rupture


ectopic pregnancy

egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube; as fetus and placenta grow, there is not enough room resulting in the rupture of surrounding tissue; causes severe hemorrhage that may be fatal for mom and fetus; signs of shock are present



pregnancy induced high blood pressure and swelling in the abdomen, pulmonary edema (swelling), visual changes, and protein found in the urine (and decreased urine); generally in 3rd trimester; second leading cause of maternal death (along with eclampsia); can occur up to 20 days postpartum



includes the symptoms of preeclampsia but is more severe and includes coma or seizures


supine hypotensive syndrome

weight of fetus in 3rd trimester presses down on inferior vena cava- results in less blood flow entering right atrium-decreased stroke volume-decreased cardiac output


first stage of labor

Dilation: from when the contractions begin to when cervix is fully dilated- fetus enters dilated cervix from uterus; amniotic sac ruptures before or during this stage


second stage of labor

Expulsion: begins with complete cervical dilation; ends with delivery of the baby; baby moves through the vagina until crowing occurs- baby sticks head out; after crowning occurs, mom pushes with each contraction


third stage of labor

delivery of placenta; mom continues having contractions until placenta comes out


nuchal cord

umbilical cord is wrapped around infant's neck


prolapsed cord

umbilical cord appears at entrance to birth canal before head of baby; cord can get pressed against uterine wall by fetus, cutting off oxygen supply to baby- big emergency


breech birth

lower extremities of fetus start coming out first; comes out upside down



fetus has bowel movement while in the amniotic fluid, if deprived of O2; if meconium debris is inhaled by fetus, may result in infection or pneumonia; suction mouth and trachea


treatment of eclampsia/preeclampsia

place in dark, quiet room; left lateral recumbent position; use quiet voice; give suction and O2 if seizure


neonatal care- APGAR



birth asyphyxia

major cause of newborn death; unable to get enough oxygen, baby isn't able to breathe


neonatal ABC's

Airway-place in sniffing position, suction if needed; Breathing- give O2 if needed/BVM (40-60 breaths per min); Circulation- take pulse (apical, umbilical, or brachial), compressions if needed


neonatal chest compressions

1 finger below nipple line; perform if already did BVM for 30 seconds and HR<60; ratio is 3:1; reassess every 30 sec- if HR>60, then stop compressions