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Flashcards in GI emergencies Deck (21):
1

Peritoneum

lining of the abdominal cavity; 2 layers: visceral (inner) and parietal (outer)

2

visceral abdominal pain

involves the organ itself; less severe, poorly localized, dull, aching pain

3

parietal pain

irritation of the peritoneal lining; more localized pain, sharp, severe

4

referred pain

visceral pain that is felt somewhere else in the body, different from the organ where the problem is

5

peritonitis

irritation or inflammation of the peritoneum, due to chemical substances leaking into paritoneal cavity; causes abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea; can do Markle test (stand on toes and then land hard on heels- will cause abdominal pain)

6

appendicitis

inflammation of appendix which may lead to rupture if untreated; symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, positive Markle test/peritonitis

7

pancreatitis

inflammation of pancreas

8

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gall bladder, commonly associated with presence of gall stones; pain in right upper quadrant; 5 F's for gall stones: female, fat, fair, forty, fertile

9

esophageal varices

bulging or weakening of vessels in the lining of lower esophagus; often seen in alcoholics; symptoms: vomiting blood

10

gastroenteritis

inflammation of small intestines and stomach; often due to infection; vomiting and diarrhea; need to treat dehydration

11

bowel obstruction

can be in large or small intestines; must give treatment right away or could lead to sepsis or shock

12

hernia

a portion of small intestine shifts outside the abdominal wall due to a lining weakness

13

kidney stones

renal calculi, originate in kidneys and must pass through the rest of urinary tract

14

kidney failure

acute KF is usually reversible; chronic KF patients require dialysis in order to filter out water and waste products from blood

15

involuntary guarding

also called rigidity; patient's abdominal muscles contract and tighten up

16

thermoregulation

largely controlled by hypothalamus; metabolism generates heat, CNS can release hormones to increase metabolic rate; brain sets body's thermostat; cardiovascular system can increase CO to cool body bc moves heated blood from core to extremities (vessels dilate) and heat is lost through the skin; to raise body temp, blood vessels constrict to conserve body heat

17

cold emergencies

body will increase metabolic rate to generate heat; vasoconstriction to reduce heat loss; shivering

18

management of hypothermia

reduce heat loss, start CPR until patient is rewarmed, ventilation, supplemental oxygen

19

superficial frostbite

caused by freezing of water in upper skin layers, blisters, may appear blue

20

deep frostbite

extends deep below the skin; skin is hard and white, eventually can turn black; place in hot water to rewarm; do not massage infected area or break blisters, give supplemental oxygen

21

heat stroke

complete failure of thermoregulatory system; extreme core heat causes cell damage and AMS; hypotension, seizures