Congenital Defects and Human Embryology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Congenital Defects and Human Embryology Deck (15):
1

Outline how genetic factors can cause congenital defects

Trisomy, for example, Downs Syndrome

2

Outline how drugs may lead to congenital defects

Acne medication such as Accutane and thalidomide can interact with foetal development

3

Outline how environmental factors cause congenital defects

Infectious agents such as rubella or zika virus, or alcohol can cause defects

4

How is consumption of folic acid beneficial in pregnancy?

Can prevent up to 75% of neural tube defects if 400mg taken daily prior to and during 1st trimester

5

What is meant by the embryonic period of development?

Weeks 3 to 8

6

What is meant by the foetal period of development?

Weeks 8 to 38

7

When is there a higher risk of congenital defect occurring in development?

Embryonic period

8

What is likely to be the consequence of damage in the embryonic period of development?

Major morphological abnormalities

9

What is likely to be the consequence of damage in the foetal period of development?

Functional defects and minor morphological abnormalities

10

Explain what is meant by a major congenital defect

Affects ~6% of newborns and requires surgical/medical intervention as it causes significant handicap

11

Explain what is meant by a minor congenital defect

Affects ~15% of newborns and doesn't require intervention as it only causes minimum handicap

12

Name some examples of major congenital defect

Anencephaly, cleft lip and cleft palate, omphalocele, gastroschisis, spinal bifida

13

Name some examples of minor congenital defects

Ear tag or pit, supernumerary nipples, cryptorchidism, polydactyly, micropenis

14

What is 'situs inversus'

This is when the organs of the body are in a mirrored anatomy to what is expected e.g. Heart on the right, stomach on the right, liver on the left

15

Name the 3 most common causes of congenital defects

Genetic abnormalities, drug use of environmental factors