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HUMAN DEVELOPMENT > Immunisation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunisation Deck (18):

Define 'immunisation'

The process of administering an antigen, usually derived from a pathogenic organism so as to induce specific active protection against the disease caused by that organism.


Outline the development of the immune system

At birth is immunologically naïve, placental transfer of IgG in 3rd trimester (passive protection), IgA in breast milk blocks bacterial adhesion, IgM is first antibody produced in immune response


What does innate immunity involve?

Phagocytes, mast cells, dendritic cells, Toll-like receptors, lectins, C3b and Fc receptors


What does adaptive immunity involve?

B-lymphocytes: antigen receptor is antibody, T lymphocytes: CD4 (helpers) and CD8 (cytotoxic), clonal deletion and clonal expansion


What is the dangers to an individual and to the herd of choosing against immunisation

Could contract infection or lead another individual (who isn’t vaccinated) to getting the infection due to herd immunity not being to a great enough percentage.


Define 'vaccination'

involves active immunisation


Define 'active immunisation'

vaccine you get changes immune system so you react better next time


Define 'passive immunisation'

will protect you but you won’t have changed your immune system


What are the features of an effective vaccine?

•Safety – must not cause illness or death
•Protection – must protect against pathogen exposure
•Longevity – should give long-lasting protection
•Neutralising antibodies – these must be induced to protect against pathogens such as polio,and many toxins and venoms
•Protective T cells – must be induced to protect against pathogens such as TB
•Practicality – must be cheap to produce and easy to administer


What vaccinations are given at 8 weeks of age?

• 5 in 1 vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis – whooping cough, Hib)
• Pneumococcal
• Meningitis B
• Rotavirus (gastroenteritis)


What vaccinations are given at 12 weeks of age?

• 2nd dose of 5 in 1 vaccine
• Meningitis C
• 2nd dose of Rotavirus


What vaccinations are given at 16 weeks of age?

• 3rd dose of 5 in 1 vaccine
• 2nd dose of Meningitis B
• 2nd dose of pneumococcal


What vaccinations are given at 1 year of age?

• Booster for Meningitis C (2nd) and Hib (3rd)
• 3rd dose of pneumococcal
• MMR vaccine
• 3rd dose of Meningitis B vaccine


What vaccinations are given at 2-6 years of age?

• Influenza vaccine each September


What vaccinations are given at ~3 years of age?

• 2nd dose of MMR
• Diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (4th doses)


What vaccination is given to girls at 12-13 years of age?

• HPV jab (cervical cancer and genital warts)


What vaccinations are given at 14 years of age?

• Tetanus, diphtheria and polio booster (5th doses)
• Meningitis A,C,W,Y vaccine


What are some contraindications for immunisation?

If there is anaphylaxis to a previous dose (severe allergic reaction), there is immune suppression for any reason or if someone is acutely unwell