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Flashcards in Menopause Deck (16):
1

At what age does menopause usually occur?

52 years

2

What is classed as early menopause?

40-45 years

3

What is classed as premature menopause?

Before 40 years of age

4

What are the short-term symptoms of the menopause?

Changes in menstrual cycle, hot flushes/night sweats, palpitations, headaches, depression, memory loss, panic, urinary frequency, urge/stress incontinence, vaginal dryness, brittle nails and joint/muscle pains

5

What are the long-term symptoms of menopause?

Hyperlipidaemia (IHD), osteopenia and osteoporosis, inelastic skin, easy bruising, prolapse, supressed libido, Alzheimers

6

Why does the menopause increase the risk of osteoporosis?

Greater amount of bone resorption (degeneration) in comparison to bone deposition leading to reduced overall bone mass due to the lack of inhibitory action of bone resorption provided by oestrogen

7

What is Dowager's hump?

Forward curvature of the spine resulting in a stoop, typically in women with osteoporosis and is caused by the collapse of the front edges of the thoracic vertebra

8

What treatments are available to treat the symptoms of menopause?

Hormone replacement therapy, biphosphates and calcitonin, selective oestrogen receptor modulators and clonidine and venlaflaxine

9

Describe hormone replacement therapy

Oestrogen and progesterone prescribed (if no uterus present only oestrogen) via tablets, patches, gels etc.

10

What are the common side effects of hormone replacement therapy?

Heavy cyclical or irregular bleeding, bloating, fluid retention, weight gain, mastalgia (breast pain), headaches, muscle cramps, abdominal pain and depression

11

What are serious potential complications of HRT?

Increases the risk of breast cancer after 5 years of use, can have thrombo-embolic events such as DVT or PE as a result of treatment

12

How may biphosphates and calcitonin work to manage menopause?

Decrease osteoclast activity to reduce bone resorption --> reduced likelihood of osteoporosis

13

How may clonidine and venlaflaxine be used to treat the symptoms of menopause?

Reduce the vasomotor symptoms e.g. hot flushes

14

When is a women considered to have reached the menopause?

After a year without menstruation (LMP 12 months ago)

15

Define 'climacteric'

The transitional phase where reproductive function declines and ceases

16

Define 'perimenopause'

The time leading up to and around the menopause