Development of Abilities in Children Flashcards Preview

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT > Development of Abilities in Children > Flashcards

Flashcards in Development of Abilities in Children Deck (21):

How does development differ between children?

The sequence of development is largely the same, it is the rate that varies


In what direction does development progress?

Cephalo-caudal direction


What happens to primitive reflexes with age?

They're replaced with specific and consciously controlled responses


What neurological processes underpin childhood development?

Myelination, growth in neuronal numbers, growth in neuronal connections


What processes does the growth in neuronal connections lead to?

Increased visual acuity, development of cerebellar programmed actions (coordination), acquisition of memories and increase in cognitive abilities


What are the environmental requirements for development?

Stimulation for vision and hearing development, opportunity for movement and play and supportive environment


What happens if a child develops a quint in early life

They will struggle to establish binocular vision in later life (amblyopia)


How would you assess development at 6 weeks?

Gross motor = lifts head
Fine motor = palmar grasp
Speech = cooing
Social = social smiles


How would you assess development at 6-8 months?

Gross motor = sits
Fine motor = visual guided reaching
Speech = babbling
Social = object permanence


How would you assess development in 10-15 month infant?

Gross motor = walks
Fine motor = pincer grasp
Speech = first words
Social = object permanence


How would you assess development in an 18-24 month infant?

Gross motor = runs (trying stairs)
Fine motor = tower of 3 bricks
Speech = 2-3 word utterances
Social = play with toys


How would you assess development in a 3 year old infant?

Gross motor = climbing stairs (alternate feet)
Fine motor = tower of 8 bricks
Speech = asking questions, rhymes etc.
Social = play with other children


How are milestones used in clinical practice?

To measure normality against disability, but not to predict future intelligence as there is a very week association between these factors


Name 5 major problems with development which should be detected before 4 years of age

Cerebral palsy, sensorineural hearing loss, severe visual impairment, (severe and moderate) learning difficulties, autism


Name Piaget's 4 stages of development

Sensorimotor (0 to 2 years)
Pre operational (2 to 6 years)
Concrete operational (7 to 12 years)
Formal operational (12 to 19 years)


Describe the sensorimotor stage of Piaget's development

Between 0 to 2 years, involved in integration and perception and motor actions


Describe the pre operational stage of Piaget's. Development model

Between 2 to 6 years where there is internalisation of actions


Describe the concrete operational stage of Piaget's model

Between 7 to 12 years and use logical rules to solve problems


Describe the formal operational stage of Piaget's model

Between 12 to 19 years and is involved in the development of abstract reasoning


During which of Piaget's stages does egocentrism and animism develop?

Pre operational stage (2 to 6 years)


Describe the abilities of a newborn at birth

Limited visual acuity (6/60), good hearing, mass body movements with sub-cortical and spinal reflexes, and basic neural processing of sensory stimulation