Connective Tissue Flashcards Preview

Histology > Connective Tissue > Flashcards

Flashcards in Connective Tissue Deck (28):
1

Loose Connective Tissue

- Lamina propria
- always irregular

2

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

- Ligaments
- Tendons

3

Dense Irregular Connective Tissue

- Dermis

4

Connective Tissue with Special Properties

- Adipose Tissue- Fat cells
- Elastic Tissue - Elastic Fibers
- Hematopoietic
- Mucous Tissue- Lining GI, Respiratory and Reproductive Tracts

5

Fibroblast, Chondroblast, osteoblast, odontoblast

- Production of fibers and ground substance
- Structural

6

Plasma Cell

- Production of antibodies
- Immunologic (defense)
- Have eccentric nucleus
- Have abundance of Rough ER
- Cartwheel arrangement of heterochromatin

7

Lymphocyte (several types)

- Production of immunocompetent cells
- Immunologic (defense)

8

Eosinophil

- Participation in allergic and vasoactive reactions
- modulation of mast cell activities and the inflammatory response
- Immunologic (defense)

9

Neutrophil

- Phagocytosis of foreign substances, bacteria
- defense

10

Macrophage

- Secretion of cytokines and other molecules
- Phagocytosis of foreign substances and bacteria
- antigen processing and presentation
- defense

11

Mast cell and Basophils

- Inflammatory response
- Defense (participate in allergic reactions)

12

Adipose Cell

- Storage of fats
- energy reservoir
- heat production

13

Unilocular Adipocyte

- One lipid Droplet

14

Multilocular Adipocyte

- many lipid droplets
- Brown Fat- in some animals and babies
- Increases surface area to volume ratio
- Way for adipocytes to rapidly generate heat
- Abundant Mitochondria

15

Mast Cell Secretion

1. IgE molecules are bound to surface receptors
2. After a second exposure to an antigen, IgE molecules bound to receptors are cross linked by the antigen
3. Ca enters the cell
4. Leads to intracellular fusion of specific granules and exocytosis of their contents
- Heparin, Histamine, Proteoglycans, ECF-A

16

Glycosaminoglycans (GAG)

- unbranched polymeric disaccharide containing amino sugars
- Disaccharide (2 sugar molecules), one of them has an amino group
- polymeric - means yo have many of these disaccharide molecules

17

Proteoglycans

- several chains of glycosaminoglycans bound to a core protein

18

Glycoprotein

Protein with branched sugars coming off of it

19

Integrins

- Dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits
- these determine what it binds to
- Link to extracellular components

20

Functions of Collagen

1) Adhesion- Discrete and restricted to cells and tissues
2) Skeletal - established in vertebrates
3) Protective- Dermis
4) Messenger- acts on cell behavior

21

Synthesis of Collagen

- Synthesis of aplha chains of preprocollagen with registration peptides.
- Clipping of signal peptide
- Hydroxylation occurs in the ER. Vitamin C dependent (cofactor)
- Gylcoslylation occurs
- Procollagen molecule is assembled as a triple helix which occurs via registration peptides
- Procollagen goes to Golgi
- Packaged into secretory vesicles
- Transported to cell surface
- Discharged into extracellular space, Procollagen peptidases cleave it to form tropocollagen, which aggregates to form collagen fibrils

22

Evolution of Elastic Fibers

- Present in jawed but not jawless
- Elastin first appeared phylogenetically with the evolution of closed high pressure circulatory systems

23

Fibrillin (oxytalan)

- zonule fibers- connect ciliary body to lens
- gives structural integrity for elastin

24

Elaunin

- Accumulation of fibrillin
- Around sweat glands

25

Orcein

- most common stain to visualize elastic fibers in tissue sections

26

Reticular Fibers

- simply type III Collagen
- Enriched in lymphoid organs and tissues (Lymph nodes and spleen)
- Stain black with silver based stains

27

Arteriole End

- Hydrostatic Pressure exceeds osmotic pressure
- Flows out of arteriole

28

Venule End

- Osmotic pressure exceeds Hydrostatic pressure
- flows into venule