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Flashcards in Oral Structures Deck (39):
1

Function of Human Oral Cavity

- Gateway to digestive system
- Articulation and resonation of sound
- modulation of the tongue helps us talk
- respiration
- defense - teeth

2

Spaces of Oral Cavity

- Vestibule - space between lips and gums
- oral cavity proper
- Pharynxx - back part of oral cavity

3

Oral Mucous membrane

- stratified squamous epithelium
- places with keratinized (a lot of friction) and non keratinized
- wet almost all of the time
- sublingual area is permeable to certain substances

4

External Surface of lips and cheeks

- tough
- keratinized stratified squamous
- hair and sweat glands

5

Vermilion Zone

- Red area of lips
- transition between keratinized and non keratinized
- high proportion of capillaries
- no hair or sweat glands

6

internal surface of lips and cheeks

- oral mucosa
- non keratinized
- tethered to underlying muscle at intervals resulting in many folds

7

Two main regions of the tooth

Crown
- white part of the tooth
- formed (covered) by enamel
Root
- inside the gums
Neck
- between the crown and root

8

Enamel

- Made from calcium crystals
- strongest component in the human body

9

Dentin

- forms majority of the tooth
- under the enamel
- contains collagen and mineral
- harder than bone but not enamel

10

Pulp

- within dentin
- connective tissue
- contains capillaries and nerves
- where you feel a tooth ache
- Apical foramen - communication between the pulp and bottom of tooth (root canal)
- Under the odontoblasts
- as more dentin is laid down, the pulp cavity diminishes in size

11

Cementum

- bone layer of tooth root
- attaches tooth to periodontal ligament
- separates dentin from periodontal ligament
- produced by cementocytes
- Rich in calcium
- Contains Sharpey's Fibers

12

Periodontal ligament

- Flexible
- shock absorber
- allows for wiggle movement
- anchors tooth in bony socket of the jaw
- continuous with gingiva (gums)

13

Ameloblasts

- produce enamel rods

14

Odontoblasts

- produce predentin
- predintin matures to dentin
- contain odontoblast processes which entend into small canals (dentinal tubules)

15

Alveolar Processes

- Alveolar bone of maxillary/mandible bones
- Form sockets for dental roots

16

Gingiva

- Attached to bone on one side and teeth on the other
- Gingival Sulcus- has a depth that is associated with healthy teeth
- the gingival sulcus is lined by non keratinized epithelium

17

Development of Teeth

- Crown forms before the root
- root forms when crown is mostly completed and we have tooth eruption
- Bud Stage - invagination that forms a bud
- Cap stage - bud continues to form and creates a cap that deepens, also a second bud forms (origin of permanent tooth)
- Bell stage - bell structure is formed and pushes through forming the tooth (baby tooth)

18

Enamel organ

- ectodermal origin
- cellular down growth of oral epithelium which forms enamel related structures

19

Dental lamina

- serves as the origin for the permanent tooth

20

Dental papilla

- Mesodermal origin
- forms the pulp
- forms dentin related structures

21

Mesenchyme

- dental sac
- forms cementoblasts and periodontal ligament

22

Palate

Hard Palate
- front part (2/3 of the palate)
- Bone
Soft Palate
- in the back of the mouth
- contains the uvula
- large number of taste buds
Both contain some salivary glands that produce mucous
- salivary glands in the lip as well

23

The tongue

- allows to talk, masticate, suckle, swallow and taste
- Papillae - involved in taste
- Primarily striated muscle

Oral Portion
- most of the papillae involved in tasting
- smooth on the bottom
- top is more rough
Pharyngeal Portion
- where the tonsils are
Terminal Sulcus
- separates the oral and pharyngeal portions

24

Filiform Papillae

- Most abundant
- Keratinized
- do not have taste buds

25

Fungiform Papillae

- look like mushrooms
- contain a few taste buds

26

Circumvallate Papillae

- Majority of the taste buds
- just in front of sulcus terminalis
- also called Vallate Papillae

27

Taste Buds

- connected with sensory innervation - produce different sensations
- innervated by nerves

Gustatory Cells
- contain microvilli
- Taste detection

Supportive Cells

Basal Stem cells
- needed for the high turnover of injured cells

Taste Pore
- where microvilli are located

28

Lingual Tonsils

- located in the pharyngeal portion of the tongue
- lymphoid nodules
- Have epithelial glands - minor salivary glands that produce mucous

29

Saliva

- Main composition is water
- Contains proteins - in the mucin group
- Enzymes - involved in digestion
- Electrolytes for tissue environment
- Antimicrobial factors

30

Major Salivary Glands

- Produce Saliva
- Parotid, submandibular, sublingual
- encapsulated

31

Minor Salivary glands

- All over
- not encapsulated
- short ducts
- secrete mucous on the lip, back of the tongue and other locations

32

Cell types of Major Salivary Glands

Serous cells
- contain secretory granules

Mucous Cells
- secrete mucin

Myoepithelial Cells
- Have properties of epithelial cells and muscle cells which surround the duct and secretory portions
- Facilitate the movement of saliva

Plasma cells
- secrete IgA
- antimicrobial component

33

Salivary Secretory Control

- Opposite effects
- Parasympathetic stimulation produces less saliva
- Sympathetic stimulation produces more saliva

- Superior Salivary Nucleus - controls sublingual glands and submandibular glands
- Inferior Salviary nucleus - innervates the parotid glands

34

Salivary Secretion

- Primary secretion by acini
- Striated ducts contribute to electrolyte addition to saliva

35

Parotid Glands

- Produce 25 % of saliva
- Back of the mouth
- innervated by facial nerve
- Serous type - many granules
- Largest salivary duct
- Secretes water, electrolytes and amylase
- Has plasma cells - produce IgA
- Opens to outside on inner surface of cheek - Stenson's Duct
- Abundant interstitial fat

36

Submandibular Glands

- Produce 70% of saliva
- Mixed type - majority serous with some mucous
- Has serous demilunes
- Primarily tubuloalveolar
- Open on the floor of the mouth - Wharton's duct
- Little or no interstitial fat

37

Sublingual Glands

- produce 5% of saliva
- smallest
- predominately mucus
- Occasional demilunes
- Multiple ducts that open posteriorly to the submandibular ducts - Bartholin's Duct
- No interstitial fat

38

Oropharynx

- Conducts food from oral cavity to esophagus
- stratified squamous epithelium (non-keratinized)

39

Nasopharynx

- Conducts air from the nasal cavities to the larynx and trachea
- Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium (respiratory epithelium)