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Flashcards in Hematology Deck (33):
1

General Features of Blood

- Type of connective tissue
- Transport: oxygen and other nutrients, waste products, hormones, heat and cells
- Clinical tests: Hematocrit and differential count

2

Formed Elements of Blood

- Cellular Material
- Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
- White blood cells (Leukocytes)
- Platelets( from megakaryocytes)

3

Differential Count

- Used to see the composition of cells in persons blood
- The blood is smeared and dried
- Then stained with Romanovsky type stain

4

Granulocytes`

- Neutrophils
- Eosinophils
- Basophils

5

Agranulocytes

- Lymphocytes
- Monocytes

6

Plasma

- 90% water, 10% solutes
- Solutes contain: proteins, small organics, and inorganics

7

Plasma proteins

- Albumin (60%)- Contribute to osmotic pressure and can act as a lose binding protein
- Globulins (35%)- include antibodies and transport globulins
- Fibrinogen (4%) function in forming blood clots

8

Small organics in plasma

- lipids
- carbohydrates
- amino acids
- organic wastes

9

Inorganic solutes in plasma

- electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca+, etc..)

10

Erythrocytes

- Red blood cells
- No nucleus
- Cannot repair damaged proteins in the cell
- limited life span (120 days)
- very flexible, needs to squeeze through capillaries

11

Glycophorin

- one of two major transmembrane proteins exposed to the outer surface of the red blood cell

12

Anion Tranporter Channel

- Allows bicarbonate to cross the plasma membrane in exchange for chlorine
- facilitates the release of CO2 in the lungs

13

Function of Erythrocytes

- Gas exchange (oxygen and CO2) is number one function
- sickle cell anemia is caused by point mutation in hemoglobin
- creates a more sickle cell shape
- makes it inflexible and it is removed by spleen

14

Anemia

Low concentration of hemoglobin in the circulatory system
Causes:
- Loss of blood- hemorrhage
- insufficient production of RBCs (low erythropoietin from kidney)
- RBCs with insufficient hemoglobin (iron deficiency)
- Accelerated RBC destruction

15

RBC Life Cycle

- Made in bone marrow and released after about a week in the circulatory system
- Last about 120 days
- removed once they become inflexible
- Most of the time this happens in the spleen but 10% of the time it happens in the blood vessels

16

Neutrophils

- Most common nucleated cell in the blood
- sometimes called polymorphonuclear leukocytes
- as it ages it becomes more lobulated
- sometimes you will see a drumstick appendage- Barr Body- inactive X chromosome in female

17

Non specific Granules in Neutrophils

- primary lysosomes
- myleoperoxidase and acid hydrolases

18

Specific Granules in Neutrophils

- Salmon pink
- secondary, or neutrophilic
- Proteases and lysoszyme

19

Diapedesis

- the passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.

20

Neutrophils Chemotaxis

- Movement of neutrophils by the process of chemotaxis toward an area of tissue damage
- Move towards chemical signals, toxins

21

Oxygen Dependent Phagocytosis of Bacteria via Neutrophils

- Oxygen is converted into super oxide radical
- then converted to hydrogen peroxide
- then converted to hypochlorous acid (bleach)

22

Oxygen Independent Phagocytosis of Bacteria via Neutrophils

- Lysosomal degradation

23

How Neutrophils possibly cause cancer

- Neutrophils attacking bacteria and bleach type compounds are being released
- Inadvertently release reactive oxygen species which can damage normal cell's DNA
- When normal cells repair their DNA, you can get a mismatch pair and this damages the nucleotides
- A single mutation probably wont do anything but after an accumulation of these mutations, you can have very damaged DNA and it can cause cancer

24

Eosinophils

- contain lobulated eosinophilic granules
- Eosinophilc Granule has two parts (striped)
1) Externum - Peroxidase, Hydrolyic enzymes
2) Internum (crystalline) - Major basic protein, eosinophil cationic protein, Neurotoxin
- Attack parasites
- Limits Inflammation (by inactivating Leukotrienes and histamine)
- 2-4% of leukocytes

25

Eosinophil Chemotaxis

- migrate by diapedesis and chemotaxis in response to eosinophilic chemotactic factor secreted by basophils

26

Basophils

Have large Basophilic granules that contain:
- Heparin (anti-coagulant)
- Proteases
- Histamine (increases vasuclar permeability, Vasodilator
- Eosinophil chemotactic factor
Functions:
- Inflammation
- Recruit eosinophils
About 0.5% of leukocytes

27

Inflammatory Activity of Basophils and Mast Cells

- Specific antigen bridges two adjacent IgE receptor molecules anchored to membrane receptor
- Cytosolic calcium is mobilized
- Granule and lipid mediators and cytokines are released

28

Monocytes

- Monocuclear phagocyte system- group of cells that play a role in phagocytosis
- Differentiate into Macrophages and other phagocytic cells
- Functions:
1) non specific phagocytosis
2) antigen presenting
- 5% of leukocytes

29

Antigen Presenting of Macrophages

- Antigen is phagocytized, and the macrophage will use a lysosome to degrade it
- Small peptides will be formed and bind with MHC
- Then the MHC will be used to present the antigen to T cells
- The T cell will then produce antibodies to destory the rest of the antigens in circulation

30

Platelets

- Fragments of cells released from bone marrow
- Contains Hyalomere and Granulomere
- Contains Platelet derived growth factor- used for endothelial cell mitosis

31

Hyalomere

- Peripheral microtubules and microfilaments in platelets

32

Granulomere

- The central portion of the platelet
- Contains granules and lysosomes

33

Hemostasis

- Vascular injury
- Vasoconstriction - Reduces blood loss
- Platelets adhere to collagen fibers in extracellular space
-Aggregate- act as a plug
- Release of fibrinogen which promotes blood clotting cascade
- Becomes fibrin which acts as a net