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Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (28):
1

Primary Sex organs

Gonads
- Ovaries
--Exocrine - production of gametes (oocyte)
--Endocrine- production of hormones

2

Secondary Sex Organs

Internal Genitalia
- Oviducts
- Uterus
- Vagina

External Genitalia
- Vestibule
- Labia minora and majora
- Clitoris

3

Ovary

Germinal Epithelium (surface of ovary)
- simple cuboidal
- not germ related

Tunica albuginea - CT layer under the germinal epithelium

Cortex
- contains different ovarian follicles in different stages of development

Medulla
- connective tissue and blood vessels

4

Follicular Development

Primordial Follicles
- flattened follicular cells around it
- born with 2 million, have ~40,000 when puberty hits
- Entered in meiosis
- Arrested in prophase I

FSH begins being produced when puberty hits
- Causes flattened follicular cells to become cuboidal and become granulosa cels
- Becomes Unilaminar Primary follicle (one layer)

Granulosa cells proliferate by mitosis
- become multilaminar primary follicle
- Theca Interna - produces androstenedione (metabolized to estrogen)

Follicle increases in size, antrum space accumulates between granulosa cells
- Becomes Secondary Follicle (antral follicle)
- OMI arrestes follicle in prophase II
- Theca Externa forms - CT layer

Mature (Graffian, tertiary) follicle
- one follicle will ovulate mid cycle
- Granulocytes around oocyte form corona radiata
- Cumulus oophorous also forms

upon ovulation, the OMI in the antral space is dispersed making it unable to arrest oocyte in prophase II
- Oocyte goes to metaphase II and is arrested forever unless fertilization occurs
- Upon fertilization, meiosis occurs

5

Zona Pellucida

- Thick layer of special proteins that surrounds the oocyte
- CT layer
- Stay around oocyte forever unless fertilization occurs

6

Corona Radiata

- Layer of tightly packed granulosa cells around the zona pellucida

7

Theca Interna

- produces androstenedione
- which gets converted to estrogen
- Abundant number of lipid droplets
- Smooth ER (steroid producing)
- mitochondria with tubular cristae

-

8

Atretic Follicle

- Oocyte is no longer oval shaped
- Granulosa cells become pignoitc
- Follicles with inappropriate crossing over are selected out
- wouldn't lead to a normal functioning baby

9

Graffian Follicle

- produces estrogen from granulosa cells
- and androstenedione from the theca interna

- When oocyte is released, the graffian follicle becomes the corpus luteum

10

Corpus Luteum

Granulosa cells become granulosa lutein cells
- produce progesterone

Theca interna cells become theca lutein cells
- produce estrogen

- only lasts 12 days, for the second half of the cycle

- regresses, leaving behind corpus albicans (least degradable material)

11

Oviduct

- Uterine tube or Fallopian tube

Parts
- Fimbriae (finger like projections) - bring oocyte into the infundibulum
- Infundibulum
- Ampulla (wider area)
- Isthmus (more narrow)
- Pars interstialis - where it passes into the uterus

Fertilization occurs in the ampulla
- Zygote may then go and implant into the wall of the uterus

12

Ectopic Pregnancy

- Small zygote implants in the wall of the oviduct
- As it gets larger, diffusion becomes rate limiting
- Starts to break down and become necrotic
- If not removed, it can rupture the wall of the oviduct and woman could bleed out

13

Histology of Oviduct

- Lined by mucosa of epithelial cells
- mucosa is thrown into folds
- ampulla is highly folded

2 layers of muscle
1. inner circular
2. outer longitudinal muscularis

- outer serosa - CT layer
- continuous with broad ligament of abdominal cavity

14

Cells of Oviduct

Secretory cells
- secrete mixture of fluids and proteins (transudate) to provide nutrients for oocyte or sperm that might be there

Ciliated cells
- under the influence of estrogen
- facilitate the movement of oocyte down oviduct and towards uterus

15

Uterus

Fundus
- part of the uterus above where the oviduct comes in

Body=Corpus

Cervix - tip of the uterus
- gate keeper

Uterus is where implantation of the zygote occurs

16

3 Layers of Uterus

1. endometrium
- Glandular layer (highly folded glands)
- Shed each month during menstrual cycle

2. Myometrium (middle)
- smooth muscle layer
- Thickest layer

3. Perimetrium
- CT layer
- Continuous with the broad ligament of abdominal cavity

17

Endometrium

Basalis
- small layer of endometrium that remain during menstruation
- Arcuate arteries underneath basalis pass through the basalis as straight arteries

Functionalis
- Part of endometrium that changes through menstruation
- there are coiled arteries here
- go from tubular to coiled in the second half of the cycle

18

Menstrual Cycle

Day 1 (or 0)
- first day of menstruation
- LH and FSH are being secreted by pituitary
- FSH has an effect on granulosa cells of the follicle causing them to produce estrogen

Increasing in Estrogen
- promotes proliferation of endometrium (starts to grow back)
- Estrogen levels increase, negatively feedbacks on FSH secretion

Mid Cycle - Surge in Estrogen
- Causes a surge in FSH and LH from pituitary

LH causes rupture of follicle to release oocyte= ovulation

Corpus luteum
- producing large amounts of progesterone and estrogen
- goes into secretory phase
- causes increase in vasculature of endometrium

After 12 days, things start to break down, hormone levels start to decline

Go back to day 1 (or 0)

19

Progesterone

- During secretory phase, high levels of progesterone prevent multiple ovulation (further follicular development)
- also reduces ciliary motion in oviduct, and increases cervical viscosity
- birth control promotes high levels of progesterone

20

Fertilization

- Ovulation occurs mid cycle
- Fertilization occurs in the ampulla
- Takes about a week for zygote to reach the uterus
- uterus would be in secretory phse

- if embryo is formed, it produces hCG
- mimics LH, maintains the endometrium so that it doesn't shed which helps provide nutrients and maintains developing zygote in the wall of the uterus

- eventually with the development of the placenta, it will take over the production of the hCG

21

Cervix

Layer of simple columnar thrown into folds
- highly secretory
- secretes viscous fluid to prevent foreign pathogens, bacteria, viruses and sperm from getting into the uterus

Right around mid cycle, the fluid changes from viscous to aqueous to help facilitate sperm to get in - for fertilization

- simple columnar transitions to stratified squamous non keratinzied as it transitions to vagina

22

Vagina

Mucosal Lining
- stratified squamous non keratinized epithelium
- lamina propria

Vaginal Muscularis
- smooth muscle thrown into folds

Serosa CT layer on the outside

23

Skene Gland

- secretes lubricating fluid
- tubular alveolar Gland lined by simple columnar epithelium
- homologous to the prostate gland

24

Bartholins Gland

- secretes a mucous fluid for lubrication
- Tubular alveolar glands lined by simple columnar epithelium
- homologous to bulbourethral glands

25

Clitoris

2 cavernosa bodies with blood vessels in it
- Corpus Cavernosa
- midline septa of CT
- surrounded by fibrous connective tissue

Contains paccinian corpuscles - sensory structures

Can become filled with blood during arousal

homologous to the penis

26

Labia Majora and Minora

- Folds of CT
- lined by stratifed squamous keratinized
- Filled with a lot of CT and smooth muscle

Majora - contains a greater abundance of sebaceous glands, sweat glands and hair follicles

Minora - closer to the vestibule

27

Urethara

- pseudostratified columnar epithelium

28

Mammary Glands

- Interlobular ducts
- Intralobular ducts that branch into the lobule

- lobules become larger during pregnancy
- as epithelial cells that line the acini proliferate