Organelles I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Organelles I Deck (39):
1

Formation of Eukaryotes

Endosymbiosis of eubacteria with archeabacteria

2

Integral Proteins

Transmembrane.
Function as pores and receptors

3

Peripheral membrane proteins

extrinsic
Accessory proteins to the function of transmembrane proteins.
Act through a signal transduction pathway

4

Saccharides on Cell Membrane

attach to the lipid (glycolipid) or proteins (glycoproteins)

5

cisterna

Space between the inner and outer nuclear membranes

6

translocating proteins

have nuclear export and import localization sequences which bind specifically to transport proteins that in turn interact with proteins of the pore complex for transfer across the nuclear envelope
- Active Transport. Big Molecules

7

Nucleolus

Makes Ribosomal RNA

8

Pars Amorpha

Organizer Region
- Conssit of DNA sequences coding for rRNA

9

Pars Fibrosa

Consists of primary rRNA transcripts

10

Pars granulosa

Mature ribosomal subunits

11

Nucleolonema

The pars fibrosa and pars granulosa.
Excludes pars amorpha

12

Heterochromatin

Heavy Staining, show up dark.
Clumped DNA

13

Euchromatin

Light Staining.
unwound DNA

14

Plant Nucleotide Pairs

They have a lot more DNA due to the ability to perform photosynthesis.
Also, plants are sedentary and need genes that transcript for survival mechanisms.

15

Amphibian Nucleotide Pairs

They have a lot genes because of their two lifestyles: Land and water

16

Interphase

Period of growth between mitosis. G1, S, G2.

17

Prophase

nucleus disappears and chromatin condense into chromosomes. Centrosomes migrate to opposite poles. Mitotic spindle forms

18

metaphase

chromosomes further condense and align at the equatorial plane

19

anaphase

sister chromosomes move toward spindle poles

20

telophase

sister chromsomes arrive at the poles

21

cytokinesis

cleavage furrow divides the cytoplasm and duplicated chromsomes into two daughter cells.

22

Ribosomes

consist of a small and large subunit that come together by binding a mRNA strand.
Translation of proteins

23

Free Ribosomes

synthesize proteins that stay in the cell

24

Rough ER Ribosomes

synthesize proteins that are secreted out of the cell

25

Functions of ER

1. Cleavage of signal peptide
2. Protein folding
3. Attachment of oligosaccharides
4. Smooth ER synthesize phospholipids, fats, and steroids
5. Enzymes responsible for detoxification of drugs and other harmful substances

26

Protein Folding in the RER

1. Signal peptide is cleaved off
2. Polypeptide is pushed into lumen of ER with chaperone proteins
3. Proper folding and posttranslational modifications occur
4. Misfolded proteins are translocated into cytosol and degraded.

27

Glycosylation

Saccharide moieties are transferred onto polypeptide chain from glycoproteins

28

Golgi Apparatus

Stack of membranes in the cell that modifies, sorts and packages proteins from the ER.
- Continuous with the ER
- Cis face is closest to RER
- Trans face releases large vesicles with mature proteins

29

COP-II

Protein that promotes forward movement from ER to Golgi

30

COP-I

Protein that promotes retrograde movement of vesicles from Golgi to ER

31

KDEL receptor

mediates the retrieval of misfolded proteins from the Golgi back to the ER

32

cis Golgi Network

phosphorylation of oligosaccharides on lysosomal proteins

33

cis cisterna

removal of mannose

34

medial cisterna

removal of mannose and addition of n-acetylglucosamine

35

trans cisterna

addition of galactose

36

trans Golgi Network

Addition of n-acetylneutraminic acid NANA
& sorting

37

Mannose-6-Phospate

Marker that is added during cis Golgi that determines segregation to lysosomes

38

Lysomsomes

- bind with other vesicles and create an acidic envirnoment
- acid hydrolases exhibit optimal enzymatic activity at pH 5

39

Secondary Lysosomes

form from the fusion of a primary lysosome and another vesicle