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Flashcards in Connective Tissue - Boros Deck (36)
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1

What are the two major roles of connective tissue?

Fluid dynamics
Inflammatory response

2

What is interstitial fluid?

Fluid that exits the blood vascular system through the capillaries

3

What is the function of the interstitial fluid?

Delivers nutrients to cells
Carries waste material from the cells

4

What causes fluid to leak out of the capillaries?

Hydrostatic pressure

5

What substances are carried along into the interstitial space?

Small molecular weight substances

6

In hydrostatic pressure, what is the driving force?

Fluid

7

In osmotic pressure, what is the driving force?

Particles

8

Where is hydrostatic pressure reduced?

In the venules

9

Where is osmotic pressure higher, the venules or the arterioles?

Higher in venules as a result of fluid loss from the capillaries

10

Why doesn't all fluid return to the blood vascular system?

Blind-end lymphatic capillaries

11

When does tissue fluid become lymph?

After it enters the lymphatic system

12

What is edema?

Excess tissue fluid present in the connective tissue spaces
Imbalance of fluid dynamics

13

What are the two possible etiologies for edema?

Increased formation of tissue fluid
Decreased resorption of tissue fluid

14

What might cause increased formation of tissue fluid?

Increased hydrostatic pressure in capillaries
Increased permeability of capillary endothelium leaking blood colloids
Ex. Venous obstruction, thrombosis, cardiac faliure

15

What might cause decreased resorption of tissue fluid?

Lowered blood colloids, lowering osmotic pressure
Lymphatic obstruction
Ex. Kidney disease, lymphatic obstruction, tumors

16

What are the two classifications of inflammation?

Acute
Chronic

17

How long does acute inflammation last?

3-4 days

18

When does chronic inflammation occur?

Following acute inflammation if the causal agent is not removed

19

How long does chronic inflammation last?

Months to years

20

What are the 3 stages of the Lewis Triple Response?

Flush
Flare
Wheal

21

What causes the Lewis flush?

Dilation of capillaries and venules
Histamine release (mast cells)

22

What causes the Lewis flare?

Dilation of arterioles - due to axonal reflex, perpetuated by histamine and protaglandins

23

What causes the Lewis wheal?

Fluid and large molecular weight substances leaking out of the capillaries and venules

24

What are the 5 cardinal signs of inflammation?

Heat (calor)
Redness (rubor)
Pain (dolor)
Swelling (tumor)
Loss of function (functio laesa)

25

What are the 2 purposes of inflammation?

Dilute toxins
Allow leukocytes and antibodies to access extravascular spaces

26

What are the stages of inflammation?

1. Transient vasoconstriction
2. Vasodilation
3. Increased permeability
4. Stasis

27

Vasodilation as a result of inflammation starts in ___ ___ first, then moves to ___.

Capillary beds
Arterioles

28

What causes increased permeability in the inflammation response?

Chemical mediators

29

What does increased permeability cause to happen in the inflammatory response?

An outpouring of protein-rich fluid into the extravascular spaces

30

The increased permeability that comes with inflammation leads to what?

Increased concentration of red blood cells