Flashcards in Contraception Deck (60)
What is the world's most widely used contraceptive method?
Fertility awareness involves being able to recognise the signs + symptoms of fertility during a menstrual cycle, so that you can avoid/plan a pregnancy (family planning). What 5 things in particular can a woman monitor?
Basal body temperature
"Standard" days in cycle
When must basal body temperature be taken when assessing the menstrual cycle? What is the expected increase in body temperature?
Before rising in the morning
Increase greater than 0.2'C sustained for at least 3 days following 6 days of a lower temperature
Describe cervical mucous immediately after a period
Low secretion, dry vagina
Describe cervical mucous leading up to ovulation
Moist, sticky, cloudy 8 days before
Wet, clear, slippery, stretchy 4 days before
Describe cervical mucous post-ovulation and its significance/relation with fertility
Thick and sticky
Fertility usually ended after day 3 of thick sticky mucous
What is the cervical position during fertility compared to when less fertile
High in vagina, soft and open when fertile; low in vagina, firm and closed when less fertile
In a 28 day menstrual cycle, which days are women most fertile?
Breastfeeding can be very effective for fertility. What are the 3 criteria?
Exclusively breast feeding
Less than 6 months post-natal
What is the UK medical eligibility criteria (UK MEC)?
Summarises various medical conditions and their suitability for different forms of contraception
What is category 1 of the UKMEC?
No restriction on use of contraception
What is category 2 of the UKMEC?
Advantage of using contraception outweighs theoretical/proven risk to health
What is category 3 of the UKMEC?
Risk of using contraception outweighs benefit, thus use is not recommended without expert clinical opinion
What is category 4 of the UKMEC?
Unacceptable risk if contraception is used
The Pearl Index estimates failure rates of contraception - what is the formula?
[No. of accidental pregnancies x 1200]/total no. of months of exposure
What does LARC stand for?
Long-acting reversible contraception
List the main LARC methods used
Injection: Depo Provera (IM)
Sayana press (SC)
Intrauterine device (IUD)
Intrauterine system (IUS)
How does Depo Provera work? How often is it given?
Inhibits ovulation, thickens cervical mucous and thins endometrium
Given every 13 weeks
Depo Provera contains a complex which is a synthetic form of which hormone?
What chronic conditions may have implication when Depo Provera is used?
When is conception most likely to occur?
Unprotected sex on the day of ovulation or the preceding 24 hours
When should Depo Provera be started without the need for using other contraception?
Up to and on day 5 of a normal cycle
When can Depo Provera be started beyond day 5 of a normal cycle?
Can be started at any other time provided the woman is reasonably certain she is not pregnant and has been using condoms or abstinent for at least 7 days
When can a woman be "reasonably certain" she is not pregnant?
Not had sex since last period
Consistently using reliable contraception
Is within first 7 days of onset of period
Is within 4 weeks post-partum
Is within first 7 days of miscarriage/abortion
Negative pregnancy test after 3 weeks since unprotected sex
List the main side effects of Depo Provera
Weight gain (increased appetite)
Delay in return of fertility
Describe the composition of the LARC IUD
Non-hormonal T-shaped device made of copper and plastic
What is the significance of an IUD being made of copper? (how does this relate to its mode of action?)
Toxic to sperm and ova, therefore prevents fertilisation and causes inflammatory response in the endometrium
When should an IUD be started?
Within first 7 days of a period
Any time when "reasonably certain" not pregnant
When can an IUD be used as emergency contraception?
Up to 5 days after unprotected sex or up to 5 days after predicted date of ovulation