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Flashcards in Contraception Deck (60)
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1

What is the world's most widely used contraceptive method?

Withdrawal

2

Fertility awareness involves being able to recognise the signs + symptoms of fertility during a menstrual cycle, so that you can avoid/plan a pregnancy (family planning). What 5 things in particular can a woman monitor?

Basal body temperature
Cervical mucous
Cervical position
"Standard" days in cycle
Breastfeeding

3

When must basal body temperature be taken when assessing the menstrual cycle? What is the expected increase in body temperature?

Before rising in the morning
Increase greater than 0.2'C sustained for at least 3 days following 6 days of a lower temperature

4

Describe cervical mucous immediately after a period

Low secretion, dry vagina

5

Describe cervical mucous leading up to ovulation

Moist, sticky, cloudy 8 days before
Wet, clear, slippery, stretchy 4 days before

6

Describe cervical mucous post-ovulation and its significance/relation with fertility

Thick and sticky
Fertility usually ended after day 3 of thick sticky mucous

7

What is the cervical position during fertility compared to when less fertile

High in vagina, soft and open when fertile; low in vagina, firm and closed when less fertile

8

In a 28 day menstrual cycle, which days are women most fertile?

Days 8-18

9

Breastfeeding can be very effective for fertility. What are the 3 criteria?

Exclusively breast feeding
Less than 6 months post-natal
Amenorrhoeic

10

What is the UK medical eligibility criteria (UK MEC)?

Summarises various medical conditions and their suitability for different forms of contraception

11

What is category 1 of the UKMEC?

No restriction on use of contraception

12

What is category 2 of the UKMEC?

Advantage of using contraception outweighs theoretical/proven risk to health

13

What is category 3 of the UKMEC?

Risk of using contraception outweighs benefit, thus use is not recommended without expert clinical opinion

14

What is category 4 of the UKMEC?

Unacceptable risk if contraception is used

15

The Pearl Index estimates failure rates of contraception - what is the formula?

[No. of accidental pregnancies x 1200]/total no. of months of exposure

16

What does LARC stand for?

Long-acting reversible contraception

17

List the main LARC methods used

Injection: Depo Provera (IM)
Sayana press (SC)
Intrauterine device (IUD)
Intrauterine system (IUS)
Implant

18

How does Depo Provera work? How often is it given?

Inhibits ovulation, thickens cervical mucous and thins endometrium
Given every 13 weeks

19

Depo Provera contains a complex which is a synthetic form of which hormone?

Progesterone

20

What chronic conditions may have implication when Depo Provera is used?

Hypothyroidism
Coeliac disease
Rheumatoid arthritis
Hyperparathyroidism
IBD

21

When is conception most likely to occur?

Unprotected sex on the day of ovulation or the preceding 24 hours

22

When should Depo Provera be started without the need for using other contraception?

Up to and on day 5 of a normal cycle

23

When can Depo Provera be started beyond day 5 of a normal cycle?

Can be started at any other time provided the woman is reasonably certain she is not pregnant and has been using condoms or abstinent for at least 7 days

24

When can a woman be "reasonably certain" she is not pregnant?

Not had sex since last period
Consistently using reliable contraception
Is within first 7 days of onset of period
Is within 4 weeks post-partum
Is within first 7 days of miscarriage/abortion
Negative pregnancy test after 3 weeks since unprotected sex

25

List the main side effects of Depo Provera

Weight gain (increased appetite)
Delay in return of fertility
Irregular bleeding
Osteoporosis

26

Describe the composition of the LARC IUD

Non-hormonal T-shaped device made of copper and plastic

27

What is the significance of an IUD being made of copper? (how does this relate to its mode of action?)

Toxic to sperm and ova, therefore prevents fertilisation and causes inflammatory response in the endometrium

28

When should an IUD be started?

Within first 7 days of a period
Any time when "reasonably certain" not pregnant

29

When can an IUD be used as emergency contraception?

Up to 5 days after unprotected sex or up to 5 days after predicted date of ovulation

30

Describe the composition of the LARC IUS

T-shaped device with elastomere core that secretes progesterone into uterus