Sick Infants Flashcards Preview

3MB Reproduction > Sick Infants > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sick Infants Deck (31):
1

What is the time period for classifying a new baby as a neonate?

Up to 28 days

2

What are the components of the APGAR score?

Appearance
Pulse
Grimace
Activity
Respirations

3

What is a normal APGAR score?

8 or 10

4

How is appearance scored on APGAR?

Blue or pale = 0
Blue in extremities = 1
No cyanosis = 2

5

How is pulse scored on APGAR?

Absent = 0
Less than 100 = 1
More than 100 = 2

6

How is grimace scored on APGAR?

No response = 0
Feeble cry when stimulated = 1
Cry or pull away when stimulated = 2

7

How is activity scored on APGAR?

No activity = 0
Some flexion = 1
Flexed arms and legs that resist extension = 2

8

How is respiration scored on APGAR?

No respiration = 0
Weak, irregular, gasping = 1
Strong cry = 2

9

What is a normal respiratory rate for a neonate?

40-60 breaths/min

10

What are the 4 main causes/groups of causes of a sick term infant?

Congenital abnormality
Metabolic disorder
Birth-related
Infection

11

List the main bacterial infections that affect neonates

Group B Strep.
E. coli
Listeria
Staph. aureus
Staph. epidermidis

12

List the main viral infections that affect neonates

Cytomegalovirus
Parovirus
Herpes virus
Enterovirus

13

What is hydrops foetalis?

Accumulation of fluid in at least 2 compartments (ascites, pleural effusion etc.)

14

When is a baby classed as preterm?

Born before 37 weeks gestation

15

When is a baby classed as post-term?

Born after 42 weeks gestation

16

List some risk factors for preterm birth

Smoking, alcohol, drugs
Poor socioeconomic status/poverty
Complications, maternal disease
Twin pregnancy
Teenage mother
IVF conception

17

What are the physiological differences between a preterm and term infant?

Get colder quicker
Fragile lungs
Less effective breathing
Little reserve

18

The cord should be clamped immediately in a preterm baby. True/False?

False
Can wait a minute to allow placental transfusion if baby is OK and can be kept warm

19

How can a neonate be kept warm?

Wrap clothes
Plastic bag under a radiant heater
Skin-skin care
Prewarmed incubator

20

List the main medical concerns in a preterm infant

Hypothermia
Sepsis
Undernutrition
Respiratory distress
Patent ductus arteriosus
Interventricular haemorrhage
Necrotising enterocolitis

21

How does hypothermia lead to hypoxia?

Increased metabolism decreases O2 supply

22

How does hypothermia lead to hypoglycaemia?

Increased metabolism increases glucose uptake and usage of glycogen stores

23

How does hypothermia lead to respiratory distress?

Brown fat metabolism causes release of fatty acids which decreases surfactant production, requiring more work for breathing

24

For preterm infants, gestational correction is done for plotting growth charts. How is gestation corrected?

Number of weeks early = 40 weeks minus gestational age

25

What is the pathophysiology behind respiratory distress syndrome?

Surfactant deficiency causes alveolar collapse and decreased residual capacity, requiring more effort to breathe

26

List clinical features of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates

Tachypnoea
Grunting
Intercostal recession
Nasal flaring
Cyanosis

27

How is neonatal respiratory distress managed?

Steroid
Surfactant
Ventilation (invasive/non-invasive)

28

When does intraventricular haemorrhage occur typically in neonates?

First day of life
Insult is present by 72 hours

29

What is the most common neonatal surgical emergency?

Necrotising enterocolitis

30

List clinical features of necrotising enterocolitis

Lethargy
Gastric residue
Bloody stool
Sepsis

31

List long-term complications of premature birth

Neurodevelopmental dysfunction
Growth issues
Chronic medical conditions