Flashcards in Sick Infants Deck (31)
What is the time period for classifying a new baby as a neonate?
Up to 28 days
What are the components of the APGAR score?
What is a normal APGAR score?
8 or 10
How is appearance scored on APGAR?
Blue or pale = 0
Blue in extremities = 1
No cyanosis = 2
How is pulse scored on APGAR?
Absent = 0
Less than 100 = 1
More than 100 = 2
How is grimace scored on APGAR?
No response = 0
Feeble cry when stimulated = 1
Cry or pull away when stimulated = 2
How is activity scored on APGAR?
No activity = 0
Some flexion = 1
Flexed arms and legs that resist extension = 2
How is respiration scored on APGAR?
No respiration = 0
Weak, irregular, gasping = 1
Strong cry = 2
What is a normal respiratory rate for a neonate?
What are the 4 main causes/groups of causes of a sick term infant?
List the main bacterial infections that affect neonates
Group B Strep.
List the main viral infections that affect neonates
What is hydrops foetalis?
Accumulation of fluid in at least 2 compartments (ascites, pleural effusion etc.)
When is a baby classed as preterm?
Born before 37 weeks gestation
When is a baby classed as post-term?
Born after 42 weeks gestation
List some risk factors for preterm birth
Smoking, alcohol, drugs
Poor socioeconomic status/poverty
Complications, maternal disease
What are the physiological differences between a preterm and term infant?
Get colder quicker
Less effective breathing
The cord should be clamped immediately in a preterm baby. True/False?
Can wait a minute to allow placental transfusion if baby is OK and can be kept warm
How can a neonate be kept warm?
Plastic bag under a radiant heater
List the main medical concerns in a preterm infant
Patent ductus arteriosus
How does hypothermia lead to hypoxia?
Increased metabolism decreases O2 supply
How does hypothermia lead to hypoglycaemia?
Increased metabolism increases glucose uptake and usage of glycogen stores
How does hypothermia lead to respiratory distress?
Brown fat metabolism causes release of fatty acids which decreases surfactant production, requiring more work for breathing
For preterm infants, gestational correction is done for plotting growth charts. How is gestation corrected?
Number of weeks early = 40 weeks minus gestational age
What is the pathophysiology behind respiratory distress syndrome?
Surfactant deficiency causes alveolar collapse and decreased residual capacity, requiring more effort to breathe
List clinical features of respiratory distress syndrome in neonates
How is neonatal respiratory distress managed?
When does intraventricular haemorrhage occur typically in neonates?
First day of life
Insult is present by 72 hours
What is the most common neonatal surgical emergency?