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Flashcards in Pelvic Floor Disorders Deck (28):
1

What are the 3 main categories of pelvic floor disorders?

Urinary incontinence
Pelvic organ prolapse
Anal incontinence

2

List the 4 main types of urinary incontinence

Stress
Urge
Overflow
Mixed

3

List risk factors for urinary incontinence

Being female
Increasing age
Obesity
Smoking
Kidney disease
Diabetes

4

What is urinary urgency?

Sudden compelling desire to pass urine that is difficult to resist

5

Does involuntary urine leakage occur in urge incontinence?

Yes

6

How is overactive bladder different from stress incontinence?

OAB involves involuntary detrusor contraction; stress can be caused by pressure or urethral hypermotility

7

How can incontinence be tested for on physical examination?

Standing or supine stress test

8

List the spectrum of treatments for overactive bladder, from least to most invasive

Lifestyle improvement
Bladder training
Pelvic floor exercise/physio
Drugs
Botox
Neuromodulation
Reconstructive surgery

9

Which drug class is the most commonly used for overactive bladder? Name the most used agent

Antimuscarinics
Oxybutynin

10

What drug class can help relax the bladder? Give an example

B3 agonist
Mirabegron

11

What is classified as a normal amount of urine to void a day?

Less than 8 times a day
Less than 2800 ml a day

12

What does cystometry measure?

Pressure-volume relationship of the bladder during filling, provocation and voiding

13

When does stress incontinence occur?

Sudden movements or increases in intrabdominal pressure

14

Which drug can be used for stress incontinence?

Duloxetine

15

What surgical methods can be used for stress incontinence?

Low-tension vaginal tape
Colposuspension
Artificial sphincters

16

When is overactive bladder dry and when is it wet?

Wet when urge incontinence is present, dry when it is not

17

What is overflow incontinence?

Chronic urinary retention due to bladder outflow obstruction

18

What specific symptom do patients often complain about with overflow incontinence?

Nocturia

19

Stress incontinence does not involve urgency. True/False?

True

20

List risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse

Pelvic surgery
Childbirth
Menopause
Obesity
Chronic constipation/coughing/heavy lifting
Uterine fibroids
Connective tissue disorders

21

Which part of the vaginal wall does a cystocele come from?

Anterior

22

Which part of the vaginal wall does a enterocele come from?

Middle

23

Which part of the vaginal wall does a rectocele come from?

Posterior

24

List some clinical features of pelvic prolapse

Bulging pressure
Difficulty voiding, incomplete emptying
Splinting of vaginal wall
Pain with intercourse

25

How are pelvic prolapses classified?

1st degree: in vagina
2nd degree: at interiotus
3rd degree: outside vagina
Procidentia: completely outside vagina

26

What is the POP-Q system?

Pelvic organ prolapse quantification system
Measure each site of prolapse in relation to hymenal ring: if above hymen, -ve, if below hymen, +ve

27

What should be given if someone has pelvic prolapse with atrophic vaginitis?

Oestrogen

28

What are the 2 main management options for pelvic prolapse?

Pessary
Surgery