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Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (65)
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1

What bacterial species predominates in healthy vaginal flora?

Lactobacillus spp.

2

What does Lactobacillus spp. produce and what is the effect of these products?

Lactic acid +/- hydrogen peroxide
Suppresses growth of other bacteria

3

List some bacteria other than Lactobacillus spp. that can be part of the normal vaginal flora

Strep viridans
Group B Strep
Candida spp. (small numbers)

4

What are the 3 main non-sexually-transmitted genital tract infections?

Vaginal thrush
Bacterial vaginosis
Prostatitis

5

Which bacteria causes vaginal thrush?

Candida (usually albicans)

6

The presence of Candida on vaginal swab indicates vaginal thrush. True/False?

False
30% of females are colonised by small numbers of Candida as part of normal flora

7

List some predisposing factors to developing Candida infection

Recent antibiotic therapy
High oestrogen levels (pregnant, contraceptives)
Poorly controlled diabetes
Severely immunocompromised

8

Describe clinical presentation of vaginal thrush

Intensely itchy
White vaginal discharge "like cottage cheese"

9

How is the diagnosis of vaginal thrush made?

Clinical diagnosis/appearance
Vaginal swab to culture for C. albicans

10

How is vaginal thrush treated?

Topical clotrimazole
Oral fluconazole if no response

11

What is characteristic of Candida albicans on gram film?

Appearance of budding

12

Who typically gets other forms of Candida infection (other than albicans)?

Poorly controlled diabetics (C. balanitis)
Immunosuppressed

13

Which organisms are the main causes of bacterial vaginosis?

Gardnerella vaginalis
Mobiluncus sp.
Other anaerobes

14

Describe clinical presentation of bacterial vaginosis

Thin, watery, fish-smelling discharge that reeeeaally stinks

15

How is a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis made?

Clinical diagnosis/examination
Raised vaginal pH greater than 4.5

16

The presence of what cells on microscopy suggest bacterial vaginosis?

Clue cells

17

How is bacterial vaginosis treated?

Oral metronidazole

18

Describe the clinical presentation of acute bacterial prostatitis

UTI-like
Abdominal/back/perineal/penile pain
Tender prostate

19

A mid-stream sample of urine is required to test for urethral infection in acute bacterial prostatitis. True/False?

False
Mid-stream for upper UTI, first-pass for lower UTI

20

How is acute bacterial prostatitis treated?

Ciprofloxacin for 28 days
Trimethoprim if high C. diff risk

21

List the 3 main sexually-transmitted bacterial infections

Chlamydia
Gonorrhoea
Syphilis

22

What is the commonest bacterial STI in the UK? What organism causes it?

Chlamydia, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

23

What areas of the body can chlamydia infect?

Eyes
Throat
Rectum
Urethra
Cervix

24

Chlamydia reproduces both in and out -side the host cell. True/False?

False
Obligate bacteria that only reproduces inside the host

25

Does chlamydia stain with Gram stain?

No because no peptidoglycan in cell wall

26

What are the 3 serological groupings of chlamydia and their respective infections?

Serovars A-C = trachoma/eye infection
Serovars D-K = genital infection
Serovars L1-L3 = lymphogranuloma venereum

27

What condition does lymphogranuloma venereum mimic on presentation?

Inflammatory bowel disease - features of proptosis, PR bleed, irritation, fullness

28

How is chlamydia infection treated?

Azithromycin if uncomplicated
Doxycycline for 7 days
3 weeks if LGV

29

Which bacteria causes gonorrhoea?

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

30

Gonorrhoea is more common than chlamydia. True/False?

False