Flashcards in Microbiology Deck (65)
What bacterial species predominates in healthy vaginal flora?
What does Lactobacillus spp. produce and what is the effect of these products?
Lactic acid +/- hydrogen peroxide
Suppresses growth of other bacteria
List some bacteria other than Lactobacillus spp. that can be part of the normal vaginal flora
Group B Strep
Candida spp. (small numbers)
What are the 3 main non-sexually-transmitted genital tract infections?
Which bacteria causes vaginal thrush?
Candida (usually albicans)
The presence of Candida on vaginal swab indicates vaginal thrush. True/False?
30% of females are colonised by small numbers of Candida as part of normal flora
List some predisposing factors to developing Candida infection
Recent antibiotic therapy
High oestrogen levels (pregnant, contraceptives)
Poorly controlled diabetes
Describe clinical presentation of vaginal thrush
White vaginal discharge "like cottage cheese"
How is the diagnosis of vaginal thrush made?
Vaginal swab to culture for C. albicans
How is vaginal thrush treated?
Oral fluconazole if no response
What is characteristic of Candida albicans on gram film?
Appearance of budding
Who typically gets other forms of Candida infection (other than albicans)?
Poorly controlled diabetics (C. balanitis)
Which organisms are the main causes of bacterial vaginosis?
Describe clinical presentation of bacterial vaginosis
Thin, watery, fish-smelling discharge that reeeeaally stinks
How is a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis made?
Raised vaginal pH greater than 4.5
The presence of what cells on microscopy suggest bacterial vaginosis?
How is bacterial vaginosis treated?
Describe the clinical presentation of acute bacterial prostatitis
A mid-stream sample of urine is required to test for urethral infection in acute bacterial prostatitis. True/False?
Mid-stream for upper UTI, first-pass for lower UTI
How is acute bacterial prostatitis treated?
Ciprofloxacin for 28 days
Trimethoprim if high C. diff risk
List the 3 main sexually-transmitted bacterial infections
What is the commonest bacterial STI in the UK? What organism causes it?
Chlamydia, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
What areas of the body can chlamydia infect?
Chlamydia reproduces both in and out -side the host cell. True/False?
Obligate bacteria that only reproduces inside the host
Does chlamydia stain with Gram stain?
No because no peptidoglycan in cell wall
What are the 3 serological groupings of chlamydia and their respective infections?
Serovars A-C = trachoma/eye infection
Serovars D-K = genital infection
Serovars L1-L3 = lymphogranuloma venereum
What condition does lymphogranuloma venereum mimic on presentation?
Inflammatory bowel disease - features of proptosis, PR bleed, irritation, fullness
How is chlamydia infection treated?
Azithromycin if uncomplicated
Doxycycline for 7 days
3 weeks if LGV
Which bacteria causes gonorrhoea?