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Flashcards in Controllable Factors (2) Deck (14):

What are some of the essential characteristics of a running shoe?

Attenuation of single/multiple impact forces
Adequate friction/traction


What are the parts of a trainer and what do they do?

Uppers --> compound structure
Insole Board --> rigid base of the shoe
Insole --> reduce impact forces and for comfort
Heel Counter --> prevents pronation
Midsole and Wedge --> shock absorption
Outsole --> abrasion - grooves push away water


What are the variables related to impact force?

Peak Vertical Force and Time to..
Peak Loading Rate and Time to...


What % of running shoes provide the runner with energy?

They provide 1% of the total energy per stride
Stored energy released cannot be returned so therefore cannot enhance performance


What are the different heel sole shapes?

Flared, Neutral and Rounded


What does reduced flare heel cause?

What does increases rounded heel cause?

Reduced joint pronation

Reduced torque production


What does a more neutral heel shape state result in?

Better foot movements and reduced injuries


Why is forefoot running better than heel strike running?

Increases the use of the SSC - however many are unprepared for this
All 10K athletes have a forefoot running style


What is the aim of minimalist shoes?

Due to the impracticality of barefoot running
Majority of these shoes are dictated by fashion


What are the different properties of sports surfaces?

Friction --> friction = locking surfaces, traction = interlocking surfaces

Compliance --> opposite of stiffness - if low (increases injury), if high (reduces performance)

Resilience --> energy returned as % amount of energy absorbed at impact

Hardness --> resistance to penetration - hard (stiff), soft (compliant)

Impact Attenuation --> reduction of impact forces and surface absorption (IAAF = 35-50%)


What are the different types of natural surfaces?

What are their good properties?

Turf, Clay, Ice, Snow

All have great impact attenuation and resilience


Why is soft ground bad?

Why is sand bad?

Absorbs energy and returns little back

Increase energy cost due to reduced elastic energy potentiation


What are the 5 types of artificial surfaces?

1) Concrete (high resilience & stiffness, low compliance)

2) Outdoor Elastomer (high resilience & traction, expensive)

3) Bound Crumb (good for all weathers)

4) Synthetic (high resilience, low injury risk)

5) Indoor (high compliance, useful for ranges of sports)


What is the difference between artificial and natural?

Artificial doesn't allow same degree of sliding
Resists rotational forces