Detraining and Ageing Flashcards Preview

Biomechanics of Sports Injury > Detraining and Ageing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Detraining and Ageing Deck (24):
1

What is detraining?

Cessation of exercise training

Planned/unplanned reduce in volume/intensity of training

2

What are the 4 types of detraining?

Cessation
In-season
Long-term
Other

3

What is cessation of detraining?

End of season - strength reduces at slower rate than it increased
Rate depends on level of training and tests used

4

What is in-season detraining?

Reduced performance when cutting resistance training from the programme
Strength athletes can afford some cuts with little or no decline in performances

5

What is long-term detraining?

Powerlifter - detraining led to turning into an aerobic profile not strength based (increased VO2)
However if do no aerobic = reduced muscle fibres and reduced thigh girth

6

What are some of the other effects of detraining?

Hakkinen -> 12 weeks detraining - reduction in jump height but above that of baseline

Winter -> bone mineral density decreases after 6 months - resistance training important on unloading

7

What does detraining have to do with health?

Chronic detraining for a bulked athlete leads to health problems (obesity, CV)
Must keep recreationally fit

8

What is the role of conditioners, clinicians and scientists in terms of detraining?

Conditioner - how to prevent it
Clinician - how to minimise the levels
Scientist - study the mechanisms as to why

9

What is immobilisation in terms of muscle activity?

Extent to which disuse halts the activation of involved muscles

10

What did the study of Semler (2000) find when putting an arm cast on patients?

Reduction in bicep and Brachioradialis strength by 38% and 29%
Women showed greater decreases than men
Due to reduction in protein synthesis

11

How are fibre types affected during detraining?

Reduction in Type I and increase in Type II
Fibres affected the most are those whose activity is reduced the most (slow-to-fast)
No alterations in recruitment order however reduced force exerted by high threshold MU's

12

What are the 3 methods used to measure for limb unloading?

Hind-leg raising
Leg-unloading (sling)
Bed-rest

13

What were the results of the 3 different methods of limb unloading?

Hind Leg -> reduced Type I and increased Type II

Leg Sling -> reduced strength greater than atrophy, reduction of Type I fibres and force

Spaceflight -> atrophy increased for Type IIx but decreased for Type I, reduction of fatigue

14

How does the ageing population affect physiological function?

Increase in mobility limitations and reduction of daily activities
Ageing increases care home admission and NHS burden

15

How does the ageing population affect the risk of falling?

Burden on health and resources
Increase NHS cost and mortality risk

16

What is the difference between muscle strength and power?

Strength = critical for mobility in old age
Peaks between 20-30, reduces each decade by 12-15% after 50

Power = product of force and velocity
Decreases earlier and more rapidly, ankle flexors correlated with chair rising and stair climbing

17

What are the age declines in walking?


What is this due to?

Propulsive power during push off decreases due to muscle weakness and reduced flexibility

strength loss, sarcopenia and tendon adaptation

18

What is the relationship of strength declines and postural control?

Posture control reduces after 60+

Melzer:
Eyes open narrow stance and eyes closed narrow stance (increase CoP, velocity and mediolateral sway)

Leightley:
Healthy older adults had more sway than younger
Old had 17x greater sway with closed eyes
Could benefit from balance training

19

How is gait affected in the elderly?

Reduced peak GRF with lower speeds
Increases the risk of mobility limitations, disabilities and poor health

20

How is muscle mass affected in the elderly?

Reduced muscle mass = reduced force production
Caused by reduction in the size of fibres or loss of fibres
Lower Type II and CSA occurs with ageing

21

What are 3 other ageing mechanisms?

Muscle Properties:
Increase Type I fibres = slower contractile

MU properties:
Reduced motor neurons and innervation no.

Neural Pathways:
Reduced CNS function, strength and coactivation during hand tasks

22

What are 4 ways to prevent muscle mass loss in the elderly?

Physical Activity
Resistance Training
Nutrition
Supplements

23

What has research found that can limit the decreases in strength/muscle mass?

Solberg:
Landed stair climb and life satisfaction - better for those in a functional training group

Sundstrop:
Football training and strength training were both as effective as each other

24

What has research found that can limit the decreases in strength/muscle mass?

Byrne:
Muscle power is as important as strength
Training = moving fast as possible is better

Make-up:
Unscrewing cosmetics - 2-3x greater than eating
Women over 90 applying make up increased their grip strength by 2kg on average