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Biomechanics of Sports Injury > Uncontrollable Factors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Uncontrollable Factors Deck (15):

What factors can be modified, however with limitations?

Coordination, Body Weight, Posture, Stiffness or Imbalances


At what age range does bone mass peak?

Why does it decrease every decade after this?

20-40 years old

Tensile strain/stress, failure of energy absorption, tendons less resistant to tension


What tissue properties change in older adults?

1) Decreasing bone mass after 40+
2) Decrease bone compressive strength
3) Ultimate tensile strength of ACL lowers by 60% from 20-65%


The Older Athlete:
What % does exercise reduce the strength declines?

What is a common overuse injury in the elderly?

Exercise reduces the decline in strength by 50% - slows down ACL strength reduction



What are the differences between males and females?

Women more likely to have different injury causes due to:
Body shape, hormonal imbalances, wider pelvis, lower lean muscle mass


What are the 2 sources of leg-length discrepancy's?

1) Anatomical --> actually different lengths
2) Functional --> appear to be different but could be due to foot architecture/frontal plane displacement


What are some other discrepancy's?

Genu Varum (bow legs)
Genu Valgum (knock knees)
Muscle Attachment Position


How does the femur angle affect biomechanical abnormalities?

Key bone in leg orientation
The femoral neck relative to the shaft position is described by:
Angle (frontal) --> 125 degrees and Anteversion (horizontal)


What are two examples of lower extremity problems?

Trendelenburg Gait (weak hip abductors - leg swung outwards)
Hip Hitching (prevents foot from contacting the ground -key for race walkers)


What are the 3 types of arches that are formed to protect the foot?

Lateral Arch (cuboid)
Medial Arch (talus)
Transverse Arch (foot centre)


Flat Feet:
What is the proper term and what is it?
What can it lead to/implications?

Pes Planus - flat and flexible feet - pronation during gait

Leads to tibial torsion and increases femoral rotation, implicated in overuse injuries


High Ankles:
What is the proper term and what is it?
What can it lead to/implications?

Per Cavus - rigid - supination during gait

External femoral rotation and implicated in overuse injuries (stress fractures)


What are 2 different lower limb problems?

Compartment Syndrome --> located in the shin, intramuscular activity impedes blood flow (shin splints)

Morton's Metatarsalgia --> nerve caught between two bones causing severe pain when running


What are the 2 different upper body posture problems?

Excessive scapular abduction can lead to impingement syndrome and can arise from:

Cervical Spine Lordosis
Thoracic Spine Hyphosis


What can put stress on the shoulder joint in Tennis players?

Inability to achieve full abduction, adduction, elevation

Malformed acromium process / different muscle attachments can have an effect