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Biomechanics of Sports Injury > Uncontrollable Factors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Uncontrollable Factors Deck (15):
1

What factors can be modified, however with limitations?

Coordination, Body Weight, Posture, Stiffness or Imbalances

2

At what age range does bone mass peak?

Why does it decrease every decade after this?

20-40 years old

Tensile strain/stress, failure of energy absorption, tendons less resistant to tension

3

What tissue properties change in older adults?

1) Decreasing bone mass after 40+
2) Decrease bone compressive strength
3) Ultimate tensile strength of ACL lowers by 60% from 20-65%

4

The Older Athlete:
What % does exercise reduce the strength declines?

What is a common overuse injury in the elderly?

Exercise reduces the decline in strength by 50% - slows down ACL strength reduction

Osteoarthritis

5

What are the differences between males and females?

Women more likely to have different injury causes due to:
Body shape, hormonal imbalances, wider pelvis, lower lean muscle mass

6

What are the 2 sources of leg-length discrepancy's?

1) Anatomical --> actually different lengths
2) Functional --> appear to be different but could be due to foot architecture/frontal plane displacement

7

What are some other discrepancy's?

Genu Varum (bow legs)
Genu Valgum (knock knees)
Muscle Attachment Position

8

How does the femur angle affect biomechanical abnormalities?

Key bone in leg orientation
The femoral neck relative to the shaft position is described by:
Angle (frontal) --> 125 degrees and Anteversion (horizontal)

9

What are two examples of lower extremity problems?

Trendelenburg Gait (weak hip abductors - leg swung outwards)
Hip Hitching (prevents foot from contacting the ground -key for race walkers)

10

What are the 3 types of arches that are formed to protect the foot?

Lateral Arch (cuboid)
Medial Arch (talus)
Transverse Arch (foot centre)

11

Flat Feet:
What is the proper term and what is it?
What can it lead to/implications?

Pes Planus - flat and flexible feet - pronation during gait

Leads to tibial torsion and increases femoral rotation, implicated in overuse injuries

12

High Ankles:
What is the proper term and what is it?
What can it lead to/implications?

Per Cavus - rigid - supination during gait

External femoral rotation and implicated in overuse injuries (stress fractures)

13

What are 2 different lower limb problems?

Compartment Syndrome --> located in the shin, intramuscular activity impedes blood flow (shin splints)

Morton's Metatarsalgia --> nerve caught between two bones causing severe pain when running

14

What are the 2 different upper body posture problems?

Excessive scapular abduction can lead to impingement syndrome and can arise from:

Cervical Spine Lordosis
Thoracic Spine Hyphosis

15

What can put stress on the shoulder joint in Tennis players?

Inability to achieve full abduction, adduction, elevation

Malformed acromium process / different muscle attachments can have an effect