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Biomechanics of Sports Injury > Evaluation of PAP > Flashcards

Flashcards in Evaluation of PAP Deck (13):

What affect does a warm-up have on subsequent explosive performance?

An increase in 1 degree Celsius can have improvements on performance


What is the relationship between PAP and fatigue interaction?

PAP decays slower
Fatigue decays quicker
So should warm-up then do PAP


What are some of the reasons for fatigue?

1) Fuel depletion
2) Metabolic by-products
3) Thermoregulation (actin and myosin flop)
4) Reduced contractile elements


What are some of the mechanisms associated with fatigue?

1) Increased sensitisation to phosphorylation on myosin light chains

2) Increase alpha motor neuron recruitment and reduced co-contractions (recruits larger MU's)

3) Reduced angle of pronation (more pennated)


What affect does increasing alpha motor neuron have on recruitment?

M-wave (amplitude)
H-reflex improvement (what comes back through the loop)


What did Requena et al find about H-waves and the Renshaw Cell?

Large contractions - move out of the H-wave and reduces the Renshaw's ability to inhibit neuron recruitment


How does pennation angle affect force production?

Straight fibres = more force transfer = explosive strength
Pennated = more velocity based


How does an increased sensitisation to phosphorylation on myosin light chains affect contractions?

- if you reduce phosphate = cannot contract well due to binding sites not acting properly
- calcified = they over contract
- PAP tries to optimise this balance of Ca and Pi


How does muscle fibre type affect contractions?

High responders to electrical stimulation had high % of Type II muscle fibres


What are some of the methods in which to elicit PAP?

Vibration plates
Isometric (electric/voluntary)
Dynamic (plyometrics)


What are some of the methodological factors of PAP?

Participant Characteristics
Recovery Duration
Study Design
Activation method volume and intensity


Why must there be exclusions on meta-analysis?

Must have control participants
Fibre type and training history dictates PAP
Weaker = early potentiation
Trained = later potentiation


What multiplier is back squat 1RM to weight found?

1.6:1 for back squat:body weight