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Biomechanics of Sports Injury > Controllable Factors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Controllable Factors Deck (24):
1

What are the key principles of training?

Overload, Progression, Specificity, Variety

2

What are 3 types of training error?

Overtraining/Reaching
No gradual loading
Repeating activity when fatigued

3

What % of injuries occur due to training errors?

70-75%

4

What are the 3 different types of stretching?

Static
Ballistic
PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation)

5

What is mobility?

The movement around a joint - affected by mobility of your bones

6

What can stretching do to performance?

What types of stretching are best to elongate tissues?

Can decrease performances but prevent decreases in range of motion

Static and PNF

7

Why is strength training good for you?

Reduce injury risk as it improves resistance to tensile loads
Improves strength of the connective tissues

8

What is the reason coaches plan programmes of strength training

Good --> More muscle = more power = increase resistance to injury
Bad --> more fuel required and increases injury risk

9

Why is a muscle imbalance between the hamstrings and quadriceps apparent?

What percentage imbalance can cause an increased injury risk?

Breakdown of fine motor control during fatigue.
The hamstrings must be able to cope with everything the Quads can do.

10% imbalance causes increased injury risk

10

Why is movement repetition good/bad?

Optimises a skill as sub-cortical centres learn to automate it
However can cause increased risk of overuse injury

11

What does research challenge about repetition training?

- Elite people vary the way they train well-learned tasks
- Training skills don't resemble competitions
- More than one way of performing a skill and achieving an outcome (penalty kick)

12

What is Fatigue?

occurs with sustained exercise and is a decreased in power output and decline in performance

13

What are the 3 potential sites of fatigue?

1) Within the CNS
2) Neural transmit from CNS to the muscle
3) Within the individual fibres

14

What is metabolic fatigue?

How does lactate build up affect fatigue?

When the muscles run out of fuel

- Calcium cannot bind to troponin
- halts enzyme functioning

15

What is neuromuscular fatigue?

How does this bring about a reduction in performance?

If you continue training when fatigued your body shuts down

CNS prevents contraction by inhibiting the nerve cell excitation

16

Why do changes in MTU function lower performances?

Reduce the effectiveness of SSC and therefore increasing the need for muscular work

17

What are the processes of functional changes?

1) Deteriorated muscle function
2) Reduced impact tolerance
3) Reduced elastic potential
4) Increase work in push off phase

18

Why do repeated SSC movements induce fatigue?

Reduces the amount of elastic energy storage therefore reducing force
Increase transition time from stretch to shortening phase

19

What are the kinematic changes and fatigue in race walking?

50km reduced in pace but 30km kept same cadence

Endurance athletes who maintain regular firing rates, main fatigue area was reduced muscle force therefore reducing impulses and step length

20

What are the differences between overtraining and overreaching?

Overtraining --> More prolonged fatigue state (weeks/months due to lack of rest)

Overreaching --> Prolonged fatigue state (few days due to strenuous competitions)

21

What are some of the symptoms of overtraining and overreaching?

Increased Blood Pressure
Reduced Iron
Fatigue

22

What are some of the types of soft-tissue injury?

Bones, Cartilage, Ligaments and MTU
Also injure the synovial membrane

23

What occurs during acute injuries?

Pain reduces quicker than tissue damage
Pain may go but tissue damage may not be healed
Always permanent damage

24

What occurs during chronic injuries?

If attempting to return constantly before actually being recovered properly, it is more detrimental to performance
Pain isn't the best guide for recovery