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Flashcards in Copy of Endocrine Rx - Sheet1 Deck (37):
1

Lispro

1)Type I DM, Type II DM, gestational DM, life-threatening hyperkalemia, stress-induced hyperglycemia
2)Insulin/Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kinase activity)
-Liver: increase glucose stored as glycogen
-Muscle: increase glycogen and protien synthesis and K+ uptake
-Fat: aids in TG storage
3)Hypoglycemia, very rarely hypersensitivy rxns
4)Rapid-acting

2

Aspart

1)Type I DM, Type II DM, gestational DM, life-threatening hyperkalemia, stress-induced hyperglycemia
2)Insulin/Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kinase activity)
-Liver: increase glucose stored as glycogen
-Muscle: increase glycogen and protien synthesis and K+ uptake
-Fat: aids in TG storage
3)Hypoglycemia, very rarely hypersensitivy rxns
4)Rapid-acting

3

Glulisine

1)Type I DM, Type II DM, gestational DM, life-threatening hyperkalemia, stress-induced hyperglycemia
2)Insulin/Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kinase activity)
-Liver: increase glucose stored as glycogen
-Muscle: increase glycogen and protien synthesis and K+ uptake
-Fat: aids in TG storage
3)Hypoglycemia, very rarely hypersensitivy rxns
4)Rapid-acting

4

Regular

1)Type I DM, Type II DM, gestational DM, life-threatening hyperkalemia, stress-induced hyperglycemia
2)Insulin/Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kinase activity)
-Liver: increase glucose stored as glycogen
-Muscle: increase glycogen and protien synthesis and K+ uptake
-Fat: aids in TG storage
3)Hypoglycemia, very rarely hypersensitivy rxns
4)Short-acting

5

NPH

1)Type I DM, Type II DM, gestational DM, life-threatening hyperkalemia, stress-induced hyperglycemia
2)Insulin/Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kinase activity)
-Liver: increase glucose stored as glycogen
-Muscle: increase glycogen and protien synthesis and K+ uptake
-Fat: aids in TG storage
3)Hypoglycemia, very rarely hypersensitivy rxns
4)Intermediate

6

Glargine

1)Type I DM, Type II DM, gestational DM, life-threatening hyperkalemia, stress-induced hyperglycemia
2)Insulin/Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kinase activity)
-Liver: increase glucose stored as glycogen
-Muscle: increase glycogen and protien synthesis and K+ uptake
-Fat: aids in TG storage
3)Hypoglycemia, very rarely hypersensitivy rxns
4)Long-acting

7

Detemir

1)Type I DM, Type II DM, gestational DM, life-threatening hyperkalemia, stress-induced hyperglycemia
2)Insulin/Bind insulin receptor (tyrosine kinase activity)
-Liver: increase glucose stored as glycogen
-Muscle: increase glycogen and protien synthesis and K+ uptake
-Fat: aids in TG storage
3)Hypoglycemia, very rarely hypersensitivy rxns
4)Long-acting

8

Metformin

1)First-line therapy in Type II DM, can be used in pts w/o islet function
2)Biguanide/ Exact MOA unknown --> decreases gluconeogenesis, increases glycolysis, increases peripheral glucose uptake (insulin sensitivity)
3)GI upset, lactic acidosis (most serious)
4)Contraindicated in renal failure

9

Tolbutamide

1)Type II DM --stimulate endogenous insulin release
2)Sulfonylureas (1st generation)/Close K+ channel in beta cell membrane so cell depolarizes --> triggers insulin release via Ca2+ influx
3)Disulfiram-like effects
4)Useless in Type I DM b/c requires some islet cell function

10

Chlorpropamide

1)Type II DM --stimulate endogenous insulin release
2)Sulfonylureas (1st generation)/Close K+ channel in beta cell membrane so cell depolarizes --> triggers insulin release via Ca2+ influx
3)Disulfiram-like effects
4)Useless in Type I DM b/c requires some islet cell function

11

Glyburide

1)Type II DM -- stimulates endogenous insulin release
2)Sulfonylureas (2nd generation)/Close K+ channel in beta cell membrane so cell depolarizes --> triggers insulin release via Ca2+ influx
3)Hypoglycemia
4)Useless in Type I DM b/c requires some islet cell funciton

12

Glimepiride

1)Type II DM -- stimulates endogenous insulin release
2)Sulfonylureas (2nd generation)/Close K+ channel in beta cell membrane so cell depolarizes --> triggers insulin release via Ca2+ influx
3)Hypoglycemia
4)Useless in Type I DM b/c requires some islet cell funciton

13

Glipizide

1)Type II DM -- stimulates endogenous insulin release
2)Sulfonylureas (2nd generation)/Close K+ channel in beta cell membrane so cell depolarizes --> triggers insulin release via Ca2+ influx
3)Hypoglycemia
4)Useless in Type I DM b/c requires some islet cell funciton

14

Pioglitazone

1)Monotherapy in Type II DM or in combination therapy
2)Glitazone/Thiazolidinedione: Incraeses insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue; binds PPAR-gamma nuclear transcription regulator --> incr Adiponectin expression
3)Weight gain, edema, hepatoxicity, heart failure

15

Rosiglitazone

1)Monotherapy in Type II DM or in combination therapy
2)Glitazone/Thiazolidinedione: Incraeses insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissue;, binds PPAR-gamma nuclear transcription regulator --> incr Adiponecti expression
3)Weight gain, edema, hepatoxicity, heart failure

16

Acarbose

1)Monotherapy in Type II DM, or in combination therapy
2)Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitor/ Inhibits intestinal brush-border alpha-glucosidases --> get delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption
-decreases postprandial hyperglycemia
3)GI disturbances

17

Miglitol

1)Monotherapy in Type II DM, or in combination therapy
2)Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitor/ Inhibits intestinal brush-border alpha-glucosidases --> get delayed sugar hydrolysis and glucose absorption
-decreases postprandial hyperglycemia
3)GI disturbances

18

Pramlinitide

1)Type I and II DM
2)Amylin Analog/ Decreases glucagon
3)Hypoglycemia, nausea, diarrhea

19

Exenatide

1)Type II DM
2)GLP-1 Analog/ Increase insulin and decrease glucagon release
3)Nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis

20

Liraglutide

1)Type II DM
2)GLP-1 Analog/ Increase insulin and decrease glucagon release
3)Nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis

21

Linagliptin

1)Type II DM
2)DPP-4 Inhibitors/ Increase insulin and decrease glucagon release
3)Mild urinary or respiratory infections

22

Saxagliptin

1)Type II DM
2)DPP-4 Inhibitors/ Increase insulin and decrease glucagon release
3)Mild urinary or respiratory infections

23

Sitagliptin

1)Type II DM
2)DPP-4 Inhibitors/ Increase insulin and decrease glucagon release
3)Mild urinary or respiratory infections

24

Propylthiouracil

1)Hyperthyroidism
2)Block peroxidase inhibiting organificatoin of iodide anda coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis
-also blocks 5'-deiodinase --> decreases peripheral conversion of T4 to T5
3)Skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity

25

Methimazole

1)Hyperthyroidism
2)Block peroxidase inhibiting organificatoin of iodide anda coupling of thyroid hormone synthesis
3)Skin rash, agranulocytosis (rare), aplastic anemia
4)Possible teratogen

26

Levothyroxine

1)Hypothyroidism, myxedema
2)THyroxine replacement
3)Tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors, arrhythmias

27

Triiodothyronine

1)Hypothyroidism, myxedema
2)THyroxine replacement
3)Tachycardia, heat intolerance, tremors, arrhythmias

28

GH

1)GH deficiency, Turner's Syndrome

29

Somatostatin (octretodie)

1)Acromegaly, carcinoid, gastrinoma, glucagonoma, espohageal varices

30

Oxytocin

1)Stimulate labor, uterine contractions, milk let-down, controls uterine hemorrhage

31

ADH (Desmopressin)

1)Central DI

32

Demeclocycline

1)SIADH
2)Tetracycline/ ADH antagonist
3)Nephrogenic DI, photosensitivity, abnormalities of bone and teeth

33

Hydrocortisone

1)Addison's Disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma
2)Glucocorticoid/Decrease production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and COX-2 expression
3)Iatrogenic Cushing's --> buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, bruise easily, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy, peptic ulcers, DM (if chronic)
4)Can see adrenal insufficiency when drug is stopped abruptly after chronic use

34

Prednisone

1)Addison's Disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma
2)Glucocorticoid/Decrease production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and COX-2 expression
3)Iatrogenic Cushing's --> buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, bruise easily, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy, peptic ulcers, DM (if chronic)
4)Can see adrenal insufficiency when drug is stopped abruptly after chronic use

35

Triamcinolone

1)Addison's Disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma
2)Glucocorticoid/Decrease production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and COX-2 expression
3)Iatrogenic Cushing's --> buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, bruise easily, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy, peptic ulcers, DM (if chronic)
4)Can see adrenal insufficiency when drug is stopped abruptly after chronic use

36

Dexamethasone

1)Addison's Disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma
2)Glucocorticoid/Decrease production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and COX-2 expression
3)Iatrogenic Cushing's --> buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, bruise easily, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy, peptic ulcers, DM (if chronic)
4)Can see adrenal insufficiency when drug is stopped abruptly after chronic use

37

Beclomethasone

1)Addison's Disease, inflammation, immune suppression, asthma
2)Glucocorticoid/Decrease production of leukotrienes and prostaglandins by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and COX-2 expression
3)Iatrogenic Cushing's --> buffalo hump, moon facies, truncal obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, bruise easily, osteoporosis, adrenocortical atrophy, peptic ulcers, DM (if chronic)
4)Can see adrenal insufficiency when drug is stopped abruptly after chronic use