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Psychology: Memory > Cues > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cues Deck (42):
1

another theory of memory suggests that being able to recall a piece of information depends on having the right...

cues

2

in this theory, forgetting is treated as...

a retrieval failure

3

the information still exists in memory but it isn't

accessable

4

we have more chance of retrieving the memory if the cue is

appropiate

5

the cue has to be appropriate because it could be

internal or external

6

internal

mood

7

external

context

8

we are more likely to remember if we are in the same

context/mood as we were when we coded the information origionally

9

being in the same context to remember something is known as

cue-dependant learning

10

Study

Tulving and Psotka (1971)

11

Study date

1971

12

Method: Tulving and Psotka compared the theories of

interference and cue-dependant forgetting

13

Method: each participant was given either

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 lists of 24 words

14

Method: each list was divided into...

6 categories of 4 words

15

Method: words were presented in...

category order

16

Method: Condition 1

participants had to simply recall the words

17

Method: Condition 1 name

total free recall

18

Method: Condition 2

participants were given the categories and had to recall all the words from that category

19

Method: Condition 2 name

free cued recall

20

Results: total free recall

evidence of retroactive interference

21

Results: 1/2 lists

had the highest amounts of recall

22

Results: total cued recall

the effects of retroactive interference disappeared

23

Results: Retroactive disappeared

it didn't matter how many lists the participants had, recall stayed the same at 70%

24

Conclusion: the results suggested that...

interference does not cause forgetting

25

Conclusion: because the memories became accessible if a cue was used...

it showed that they were available, but just inaccessible

26

Conclusion: the forgetting shown in the total recall condition was

cue-dependant forgetting

27

Evaluation: the study was a laboratory study meaning...

it was highly controlled

28

Evaluation: because the study was conducted in a laboratory...

it reduced the effect of extraneous variables

29

Evaluation: laboratory effects lack...

ecological validity

30

Evaluation: the setting and tasks are...

artificial

31

Evaluation: the results can't be...

generalised

32

Evaluation: Why can't the results be generalised?

the study only tested memory of words

33

cue-dependant forgetting is the...

best explanation for forgetting in long term memory

34

why is cue-dependent forgetting the best explanation for forgetting?

it has the strongest evidence

35

most forgetting can be caused by...

retrieval failure

36

this means that virtually all memories are available in...

long term memory

37

we just need the right ___ to access it

cues

38

the evidence is

artificial

39

lacks meaning in...

the real world

40

it would be difficult, if not impossible, to test whether all information in LTM is

accessible and available and just waiting for the right cue

41

the theory might not explain

all types of memory

42

for example, cues might not be relevant to

procedural memory