Cultural Influences and Behaviours & Impacts Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cultural Influences and Behaviours & Impacts Deck (15):


- Underpins basic attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours

- Influences the way you see the world



Affectionate relationship b/w two people


Culture and Attachment

- Differences from birth
-> where people are born
-> who is in room when child is born
-> who assists w/ delivery


Boulby and Ainsworth (1960)

- Marker of attachment in an infant seen as behaviour designed to gain and maintain closeness w/ parent

- Intensity of behaviour could be heightened / reduced by changing environmental conditions

- Attachment is important for the survival of infant


Ainsworth and Bell (1970)

- Strange Situation Test

-> Type A = Anxious avoidant (ignore) - does not look
-> Type B = Secure (Secure base) - Can explore
-> Type C = Anxious Resistant (cling) - resist by pushing


Ljzendoorn & Kroonberg (1988)

- Experimented to see difference b/w and within cultures regarding attachment.

-> 32 samples, 8 countries
-> more differences within than between

Type A = more common in western countries
Type B = Most common in all countries
Type C = most common in Japan and Israel


Saji and Collegues (1994)

- Suggested that early child-rearing practices can lead to difference in proportion of each attachment type

-> tested to see if strange situation test was culturally sensitive
-> investigated findings that high proportion of children raised in traditional Israeli Kibbutzim = type C

-> compared attachment behaviour of children in traditional vs home based kibbutzim.

--> traditional = 52% type C
--> Home based = 20% type C

-> More time w/ infants, less clingy


Heuval and Colleagues (1992)

- Asked students from three different cultural groups living in netherlands to:
--> 5 things about themselves to let others know better
--> 3 things about a classmate that make them similar
--> 3 things about a classmate that make them different

- Involved Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan children attending schools in relatively deprived inner-city of Amsterdam.

- Turkish / Moroccan
-> Collectivist Culture
-> Ideas of themselves be in terms of relationship to others

- Dutch
-> Individualistic Culture
-> Expected children to be autonomous and less influenced

Dutch = more individualistic in their answers
Moroccan / Turkish = more social, less psychological


Markus and Kitayana (1991)

Culture and Identity

- Makes distinctions b/w independent view of self and interdependent view of self

-> Independent view = individualistic cultures, detached from environment

-> Interdependent view = Collectivist cultures, interdependent w/ environment



- A natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's circumstances, mood or relationship w/ others

- Involves feelings that characterize a state of mind

-> Some people see themselves in different ways, interpret events differently, feel different emotions


Markus and Kitayama (1991)

Culture and Emotions

- Cultural differences affect interpretations of situations
-> Lead to differences in emotions we experience

Emotions can be divided into two groups:
-> Relate to self (pride, anger)
-> Relate to Interactions w/ others (Sympathy, shame)

-> Independent View of self: experience self focused emotions e.g. anger is ok expression

-> Interdependent View of Self: experience other focused emotions e.g. anger rarely used



-> Individualistic Cultures: Performing an act contrary to ones own moral principles

-> Collectivist Cultures: Experience guilt as result of hurting others psychologically


Kohlberg's Individual Moral Developmental Stages (1976)

- Stage 1
-> Identify bad acts

- Stage 2
-> identify right and wrong, fair

- Stage 3
-> Good girl / good boy, concern for others opinions

- Stage 4
-> Concern for social order

- Stage 5
-> Recognizes differing but equal moral values

- Stage 6
-> Embraces a set of universal, self chosen ethics


Cultural and Moral Development

- Shweder and Colleagues (1990)
-> evidence was cultural bias
-> Levels of reasoning had a western cultural bias

-> fails to recognise the importance of values held in collectivist cultures


Cultural Influences and Behaviour

- Cross cultural approach involves:
-> collaborating w/ researcher
-> procedures carried out same
-> instructions presented in language appropriate
-> interpret findings w/ original theoretical framwork