CVS S5 - Blood Flow Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CVS S5 - Blood Flow Deck (38):
0

What drives flow?

A gradient of pressure

1

Define flow

The volume of fluid passing a given point per unit time

2

Define velocity

Rate of movement of fluid particles along the tube

3

What is laminar flow?

There is a gradient of flow from the middle to the edge of a blood vessel
Velocity is highest at the centre
Fluid is stationary at the edge
Most blood flow is laminar

4

What is turbulent flow?

When layers of fluid try to move over one another faster than physics will allow
As velocity increases, eventually flow will become turbulent
Turbulence greatly increases resistance

5

Define viscosity

The extent to which fluid layers resist flowing over one another

6

What are the effects of viscosity on flow?

The higher the viscosity, the lower the difference between the velocity of flow in the middle and the edge of a vessel
The higher the viscosity, the lower the velocity

7

What is the effect of tube diameter on velocity?

Velocity is proportional to cross sectional area of a tube

8

How does viscosity affect resistance?

The greater the viscosity, the greater the resistance

9

Describe the relationship between pressure and resistance if flow is fixed

If flow is fixed, then the higher the resistance, the greater the pressure change from one end of the vessel to the other.

10

Describe the relationship between flow and resistance if pressure is fixed

If pressure is fixed then the higher the resistance, the lower the flow.

11

What is the relationship between radius of vessel and resistance?

Resistance decreases with the 4th power of the radius
This means small changes in radius can have a great effect on resistance

12

How is resistance combined for vessels in series?

The resistances for each vessel are added

13

How is resistance combined for vessels in parallel?

The resistance for each is reduced as there is another path for the blood to go

14

Describe flow over the systemic circulation

Flow remains the same at all points

15

Describe resistance and pressure changes in arteries

Resistance is low in arteries
There is a low pressure drop from one end of an artery to the other

16

Describe resistance and pressure changes in arterioles

Resistance is high
Pressure change from one end of an arteriole to the other is high

17

Describe resistance in veins and venules

Resistance is low
Pressure change from one end to the other is low

18

Why are arteries high pressure?

Because the arterioles directly after them are high resistance
It's hard to push blood into them
Therefore pressure increases

19

What is transmural pressure?

Stretches vessels
Generated by pressure in distensible vessels

20

Describe blood flow through distensible vessels

The higher the pressure in the vessel, the more stretched the vessel so the wider the lumen so more laminar flow so lower the resistance so flow increases
If pressure falls to zero, vessel walls collapse and flow ceases

21

Describe the capacitance property of distensible vessels

As vessels widen under increasing pressure, more blood transiently flows in than out
This allows distensible vessels to store blood - conferring capacitance
Veins are the most distensible (67% of their blood is at rest)

22

Describe systolic arterial pressure and what factors affect it

Maximum arterial pressure
Usually ~120 mmHg
Affected by:
-How hard the heart pumps
-Total peripheral resistance (TPR)
-Compliance (stretchiness) of arteries

23

Describe diastolic arterial pressure and what factors affect it

Minimum arterial pressure
Usually ~80mmHg
Affected by:
-Systolic pressure
-TPR

24

What is pulse pressure?

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
Usually ~40mmHg

25

What is the average arterial pressure?

Diastolic pressure plus 1/3rd of systolic pressure
(Because systole is shorter than diastole)

26

Define TPR

Total peripheral resistance
The sum of the resistance of all the peripheral vasculature of the systemic circulation

27

What is the pulse wave?

A pulse wave is brought about by contraction of the ventricles
Travels faster than blood
Can be felt at various locations where arteries may be pushed against a reasonably hard surface

28

What is the dicrotic notch?

The slight dip in the pulse wave caused by slight back flow as blood flows back through the aortic valve as pressure in the LV goes below that in the aorta

29

What is the dicrotic wave?

The slight rise seen in the pulse wave directly after the dicrotic notch
Caused by the recoil of blood as the aortic valve closes

30

Describe the importance of smooth muscle in arteriolar walls

Smooth muscle can be contracted or relaxed so can increase or decrease resistance and blood flow to tissues

31

What is vasomotor tone?

The degree to which vascular smooth muscle is contracted
If more contracted, vasoconstriction
If less contracted, vasodilation/vasodilatation
In all but maximum flow conditions, muscle is at least partially contracted

32

What determines vasomotor tone?

Mainly a sympathetic branch of the ANS
Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors
Antagonised by vasodilator factors, so tone is determined by a balance

33

What are vasodilator metabolites and what do they do?

Produced by metabolically active tissues
Eg K, H, adenosine
Cause relaxation of local smooth muscle
So increase flow and decrease resistance

34

What is reactive hyperaemia?

If a limb has blood flow cut off for a few minutes then when restored, the local arterioles will have dilated maximally (due to buildup of vasodilator metabolites) so blood flow will be very high

35

What is auto regulation?

At most levels of metabolic activity, organs automatically take the amount of blood they require so long as the pressure of the arteries remains within a certain range

36

Define central venous pressure

The pressure in the great veins

37

Define venous return

The rate of flow of blood back to the heart (limits cardiac output)