MSK S1 - The Skeletal System - Bones & Joints Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MSK S1 - The Skeletal System - Bones & Joints Deck (56)
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0

What are the three types of joint?

Sinovial, fibrous and cartilaginous

1

How much movement do each of the three joint types allow?

Synovial - most movement and most variety of movement
Cartilaginous - no/minimal movements
Fibrous - virtually no movement

2

What are the types of cartilaginous joint?

Synchondroses
Symphyses

3

Describe synchondroses (a type of cartilaginous joint)

Minimal or no movement
Covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage
Eg sternocostal joints and immobile temporary joint between epiphysis and diaphysis of growing long bones

4

What are the types of synovial joint?

Hinge
Saddle
Plane
Ball and socket
Pivot
Chondyloid

5

Describe symphyses (a type of cartilaginous joint)

Ends of bones covered with hyaline cartilage
Held together by a disk of fibrocartilage and ligaments
Variable but usually limited movements
Eg sacro-coccygeal joint, manubriosternal joint,joints between vertebral bodies.

6

What are the two main divisions of the skeleton?

The Axial and the Apendicular skeleton

7

What three things does the stability of joints depend upon?

The shape, size and arrangement of articular surfaces
The ligaments
The tone of muscles around the joint

8

What are the types of fibrous joint?

Sutures
Syndesmoses
Gomphoses

9

Describe gomphoses (a type of fibrous joint)

Found where the teeth articulate with the maxillae and the mandible
Fibrous connection called the periodontal ligament
Minimal movement

10

Describe syndesmoses (a type of fibrous joint)

Bones held together by an interosseous membrane
Examples: middle tibiofibular joint and middle radio-ulnar joint

11

What is the main purpose of the axial skeleton?

To provide protection to vulnerable and vital body parts

12

What is the main function of the Apendicular skeleton?

To allow motility

13

Describe sutures (a type of fibrous joint)

Only found between bones of skull
Limited movement until 20 years of age, then become fixed.

14

What are the functions of bone?

Support
Shape
Protection
Body movement
Haemopoesis
Mineral storage
Lipid storage

15

Where does haemopoesis take place?

In red bone marrow

16

Within bones, where are minerals stored?

In bone matrix

17

What are the types of bone?

Flat
Long
Irregular
Short (cuboidal)
Sesamoid

18

What is a Tuberosity?

A roughened or rounded elevation of a bone where a muscle/ligament attaches

19

What is a tubercle?

A small, rounded lump

20

What is a spine/spinous process?

A slender projection

21

What is a trochanter?

A large projection of the femur

22

What is a chondyle?

A large prominence or rounded surface

23

What is an epichondyle

A smaller prominence above a chondyle

24

What is a crest?

A ridge

25

What is a facet?

A flattened surface for joint or muscle attachment

26

What is a sinus?

A hollow space

27

What is a meatus?

A tunnel or canal

28

What is a foramen?

A hole or opening

29

What are the bone groups in the hand and wrist?

Carpals, metacarpals and phalanges