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Flashcards in MOD S9 - Neoplasia I Deck (40)
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Define neoplasia

The abnormal growth of cells which persists after the initiating stimulus has been removed

1

What is the difference between benign and malignant neoplasms?

Malignant ones invade and spread to other sites (metastasise) whereas benign remain at the site of origin
Malignant have irregular edges due to infiltrative growth edges but benign have smooth, rounded edges (minimal variation in size and shape)
Malignant have a higher mitotic count and may have abnormal forms
Benign tend to retain their specialisation but malignant can be poorly differentiated

2

What factors are necessary for a mutation to lead to a neoplasm?

The mutation must:
Cause an alteration in cell growth and behaviour
Be passed on to daughter cells
Not be lethal

6

Where can neoplasm-causing mutations take place?

Proto-oncogenes
Tumour suppressor genes

7

How will a mutation affect a proto oncogene to cause neoplasia?

If it is mutated so it is permanently activated, it becomes an oncogene

8

How will a mutation affect a tumour suppressor gene to cause neoplasia?

It is permanently inactivated

9

What are some key differences between neoplastic and healthy cells?

Self sufficient growth signals
Resistance to anti-growth signals
Grow indefinitely
Induce new blood vessels
Resistance to apoptosis
Invade and produce metastases

10

How does a neoplastic cell have self-sufficient growth signals?

HER2 gene amplification

11

How does a neoplastic cell have resistance to anti-growth signals?

CDKN2A gene deletion

12

How does a neoplastic cell grow indefinitely?

Telomerase gene activation

13

How does a neoplastic cell induce new blood vessels?

Activation of VEGF expression

14

How does a neoplastic cell have resistance to apoptosis?

BCL2 gene translocation

15

How does a neoplastic cell invade and produce metastases?

Through altered E-cadherin expression

16

Discuss the clonality of neoplasms

They are monoclonal
Aka a cell population descended from one common ancestor (which mutated to escape normal growth control)

17

Define dysplasia

Abnormal maturation of cells within a tissue

18

How can a carcinoma in-situ be distinguished from a malignancy in epithelial tissue?

They share all the features of a neoplasm, but a carcinoma will not have invaded the tissue beneath the basement membrane

19

How are neoplasms named?

If they are benign or malignant
By tissue type (epithelial, connective, haemopoietic, ect)

20

What would a benign neoplasm in a stratified squamous epithelium be called?

A squamous papilloma

21

What would a benign neoplasm in a transitional epithelium be called?

Transitional cell papilloma

22

What would a benign neoplasm in a glandular epithelium be called?

An adenoma

23

What would a malignant epithelial neoplasm be called?

A carcinoma

24

Where could a squamous cell carcinoma be found?

Skin, larynx, oesophagus

25

Where could a transitional cell carcinoma be found?

Bladder, ureter

26

Where could an adenocarcenoma be found?

Stomach, colon, lung, prostate, breast, pancreas

27

Where could a basal cell carcinoma be found?

Skin

28

What would be the benign and malignant names for a smooth muscle neoplasm?

Benign: leiomyoma
Malignant: leiosarcoma

29

What would be the benign and malignant names for a fibrous tissue neoplasm?

Benign: fibroma
Malignant: fibrosarcoma

30

What would be the benign and malignant names for a bone neoplasm?

Benign: osteoma
Malignant: osteosarcoma

31

What would be the benign and malignant names for a cartilage neoplasm?

Benign: chondroma
Malignant: chondrosarcoma

32

What would be the benign and malignant names for a neoplasm in fat tissue?

Benign: lipoma
Malignant: liposarcoma