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What is the principle of economy?

• Principle of economy (from Fr. Aaron’s study session)
o The Church is for the salvation of men
o Therefore, the Church has a sense of what she can and cannot do to save men
o So when the Church says we can’t do this, this is because it is part of the gift of Christ to the Church, and relates to the salvation of men
 E.g., dissolving ratified and consummated marriage; the Church dissolve it because it would not be for the salvation for men
o On the other hand, if the Church has a practice of doing something through history, that means that by the principle of economy that she does have the power to do the thing for the salvation. Thus, historical precedents have value.
 E.g., can’t say that auxiliary bishops are not real bishops, because the Church has had them for a long time, and by the principle of economy, she knows what she can and cannot do to save men


Talk about the Nota Explicativa Praevia #2. (From appendix to Lumen Genitum)

2. A person becomes a member of the College by virtue of episcopal consecration and by hierarchical communion with the head of the College and with its members. Cf. n. 22, end of 1 1.

In his consecration a person is given an ontological participation in the sacred functions [lmunera]; this is absolutely clear from Tradition, liturgical tradition included. The word "functions [munera]" is used deliberately instead of the word "powers [potestates]," because the latter word could be understood as a power fully ready to act. But for this power to be fully ready to act, there must be a further canonical or juridical determination through the hierarchical authority. This determination of power can consist in the granting of a particular office or in the allotment of subjects, and it is done according to the norms approved by the supreme authority. An additional norm of this sort is required by the very nature of the case, because it involves functions [munera] which must be exercised by many subjects cooperating in a hierarchical manner in accordance with Christ's will. It is evident that this "communion" was applied in the Church's life according to the circumstances of the time, before it was codified as law.

For this reason it is clearly stated that hierarchical communion with the head and members of the church is required. Communion is a notion which is held in high honor in the ancient Church (and also today, especially in the East). However, it is not understood as some kind of vague disposition, but as an organic reality which requires a juridical form and is animated by charity. Hence the Commission, almost unanimously, decided that this wording should be used: "in hierarchical communion." Cf. Modus 40 and the statements on canonical mission (n. 24).

The documents of recent Pontiffs regarding the jurisdiction of bishops must be interpreted in terms of this necessary determination of powers.


330: How is it that St. Peter and the Apostles came to form one college? (Latin)

"statuente Domino" -by decree of the Lord


330: How are the college of St. Peter and the Apostles and the college of the Pope and the bishops related? (Latin)

"pari relatione" Note, this does not say "eadem relatione" because the relationship is similar and not equivalent


330: What are the Pope and the College of Bishops in relation to St. Peter and the Apostles?

Successors. The pope is successor of Peter and the bishops are successors of the apostles.


331: What abides in the Bishop of Rome that was given by Our Lord to St. Peter?

The munus of Peter


331: What are the four characteristics of the RP's ordinary power?

Supreme, Full, Immediate, Universal


331: What does "supreme" mean?

No one can overrule the RP


331: What does "full" mean?

He has power over every matter in the Church


331: What does "immediate" mean?

The RP's power is not mediated. He can intervene directly in any matter.


331: What does "universal" mean?

It applies to the whole church.


331: What does "ordinary" mean?

As ever, it means that it is attached to an office.


331: How does Vatican I (not a typo) describe the RP's authority? (latin)

"vere episcopalis" In other words, the RP's authority is pastoral, directed towards a service


331: What does it meant that the RP's power is internal to each sui iuris church?

As the visible principle of unity in the Church, this means that the RP is not outside of any of the churches, but is always inside each one. He is not a ruler over a federation of churches, but the RP of the universal Church.


332: When does RP acquire full and supreme power?

Election with episcopal consecration


332: If a bishop is elected RP, when does he become RP? (Latin)



332: If a non-bishop is elected RP and accepts, does he have power before consecration? If so, what power?

Yes. He has all the power that does not require orders of itself. There is historical precedent of the election of deacons.


332: Why are there two principles of power (election and consecration)?

Because a Pope could not have supreme power if not a bishop


333: Where and when does RP have power?

Everywhere and until he's not RP


333: What is the ratio legis for this canon?

This reinforces that the Church is not a confederation of churches


333: "This reinforces and defends the proper, ordinary and immediate power which the Bishops have in the particular churches entrusted to their care." How?

The RP helps bishops because when someone disagrees on essential matters with the bishop related to his hierarchical communion, they disagree with the RP. This helps the RP because it urges observance of universal law by the Bishops.


333.2: What are the two ways that the RP can exercise his power?

Personal (ex. motu proprio) and Collegial (ex. synod of bishops acting with approval of RP)


333.3: Are there appeals against the RP's sentences?



333.3: Are there appeals against decisions of dicasteries acting with vicarious RP authority? When yes, when no?

Yes, generally. No, when issued "in forma specifica".


335: What is the law when the see of Rome is vacant? (Title)

Universi Dominici Gregis, 1996, JPII


335: What is the law when the see of Rome is impeded?

There is no law currently in force.


336: College of Bishops: They are subjects of what?

Supreme and full power


336: By what two things are the college of bishops subjects of supreme and full power? How are they important and how do they function?

By hierarchical communion and force of sacramental consecration. Hierarchical communion is the circumstance that is the sine qua non. The Force of sacramental consecration is the cause, making a man a member of the college.


336: What is the relationship of the college of Apostles to the College of Bishops?

It continues in the College of Bishops.


336: Why are there two subjects of supreme and full power in the Church? What's the ratio legis?

Bishops are more than just the Pope's helpers. The witness of the Scripture tells us that it was the intent of Christ to found the college.