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Long-term causes of Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)?

1876 - Japan opens up Korea for trade; Japan stations troops in Korea; 1884 - China withdraw half of their troops from Korea to fight French; Japan capitalise and form a temporary government in Korea


Short-term causes of Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)?

1894 - Secret societies stir pro-Japanese feeling in Korea; China sent troops to Asan; Japan retaliated by sending troops to Chinese border


Why was Japan more developed than China in 1894?

Geography - much smaller country so easier for government to control; Receptivity - lacked cultural superiority that China felt over Westerners; Leadership of Samurai


Events of Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)?

Japanese cross Yalu River; seize harbour of Lushan; secure heavily-fortified Weihaiwei; Prince Gong and Li Hongzhang sue for peace


Casualties of Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)?

China - 35,000 dead or wounded
Japan - 1,300 dead/ 3,800 wounded


Military strength of China and Japan in Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)?

China - 630,000
Japan - 240,000


Which treaty was negotiated after the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)?

Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895)


Terms of Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895)?

Independence of Korea; Taiwan, Pescadores and parts of Manchuria ceded to Japan; 200 million taels in reparations; 4 new treaty ports opened to Japan; most-favoured nation clause


What was the triple intervention (1896)?

France, Germany and Russia were concerned by the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki; Russia didn't want Japan to encroach on their sphere of influence


How successful was the Triple Intervention (1896)?

Japan were convinced to cede their claim on Liaodong Peninsula and Port Arthur for an extra 30 million taels from China


What did Russia do almost immediately after the Triple Intervention (1896)?

Occupied Liaodong Peninsula and seized Port Arthur


What concessions did Britain receive in 1898, through pressuring China after the Triple Intervention?

Lease of Weihaiwei, and 99 year lease of Hong Kong and The New Territories


What were the Hundred Days of Reform (1898)?

Young Guangxu Emperor introduced liberal reforms like changed to education, introducing a constitution and rapid industrialisation


What was the Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900)?

Violent anti-foreign and anti Christian uprising by 'peasant warriors'


Short term causes for the Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900)

1898 German troops massacre peasants; poor harvest of 1899 blamed on Christians


Why was Cixi suspicious about Guangxu's reforms?

Believed that foreigners were controlling his policies


Long term causes of Boxer Rebellion (1898-1900)?

Unequal treaty demands of westerners 1842-1895; Triple Intervention; Growing Western expansionism in China


Why did Cixi support the Boxers?

Fearful of revolution; belief in Chinese military superiority


Which eight nations joined an alliance to defeat the Boxers?

Britain, France, Germany, Russia, Japan, USA, Austria-Hungary and Italy


How many Christian casualties were caused by Boxers?



How many civilians in total were killed by Boxers?



What was signed after the Boxer Rebellion was squashed?

The Boxer Protocol (1901)


Main clauses of the Boxer Protocol (1901)?

450 million taels in reparations (Russia received the highest percentage); destruction of Taku Forts; prohibit importation of arms for 2 years