Opening Up China to Foreigners (1860-1870) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Opening Up China to Foreigners (1860-1870) Deck (13)
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Military terms of Treaty of Tianjin (1860)?

Britain, France, USA and Russia were able to station legations in Beijing; foreign warships given right to navigate on Yangtze River


Causes of Treaty of Tianjin (1860)?

British dissatisfied with 1842 Treaty of Nanjin; British French dominance over China in the Second Anglo-Chinese War (1856-60)


Economic terms of Treaty of Tianjin (1860)?

11 more Chinese ports would be opened for foreign trade; 6 million taels in reparations: 4 to British, 2 to France


Social terms of Treaty of Tianjin (1860)?

Freedom of travel in China for foreigners for trade, travel or missionary reasons; religious liberty to all Christians in China


Chinese Problems: foreign influence?

Russia wanted to redraw China's Northern border; English and French language schools opened; growing awareness of Western democratic principles


Chinese Problems: government weaknesses?

Hsien Feng was a weak leader; Cixi had too much influence; extraterritoriality meant they couldn't control foreign citizens


Chinese Problems: military weaknesses?

Hand-to-hand techniques; lack of gunpowder; 'monkey bombs'


Features of self-strengthening movement?

Opening Naval Schools; Superintendents of Trade; construction of military arsenals and shipbuilding dockyards


Why was the first phase of the self-strengthening movement (1861-72) largely unsuccessful?

They suffered from the usual bureaucratic inefficiency and nepotism; leaders of the operation profited the longer the projects went on


Causes of Tianjin Massacre (1870)?

Deaths of Chinese orphans at orphanages set up by Western Catholics; increasing number of missions and missionaries in Tianjin; 3 Chinese kidnappers arrested for selling children to orphanages


Events of Tianjin Massacre (1870)?

French consul killed Chinese assistant during negotiations; anti-catholic rioters killed French consul; full scale riots in Tianjin


Tianjin Massacre (1870) - Key Facts?

40 Chinese Christians killed; 10 nuns raped and killed; Tientsin cathedral burned down; death toll approximately 60 people


Impact of Tianjin Massacre (1870)?

Stopped negotiations about Catholic Institutions being subject to the same rules as Buddhist and Taoist Institutions; Europeans mistrusted Chinese; anti-foreign feeling for Chinese - Boxer Rebellion