Flashcards in The Sino-Soviet Split (1958-69) Deck (35)
Why were Sino-Soviet relations strained by 1958?
Soviets rejected China's peasant based communism; Mao's rejection of peaceful co-existence with capitalism
What were the Russian demands of 1958?
Joint Pacific Naval fleet, led by Soviet officers; longwave radio station in China to control Russia’s Pacific submarine fleet; grant Soviets right to make naval repairs in Chinese ports
Why did Mao reject the Russian demands of 1958?
Felt they eroded Chinese sovereignty; Soviets had not helped China develop nuclear weapons as they had promised in 1950
How did Mao test the USSR's promise of assistance in 1958?
Through the Taiwan Crisis
What was the Taiwan Crisis (1958)?
Mao ordered an attack on the islands of Quemoy and Matsu (between China and Taiwan) as he was fearful that the GMD would use them as a springboard into China
What was significant about Taiwan in 1958?
The USA recognised Taiwan and the GMD as the official government of China (not the PRC) and swore to protect it
How was the Taiwan crisis resolved?
Khrushchev didn't want to risk a war with the USA, so privately told Mao to withdraw
Which nation did Khrushchev re-open relations with in the 1950s despite its ties to the West?
What was the Little Red Book and when was it published?
Published in 1961
33 speeches of Mao's on different topics that became essential reading for the People's Liberation Army (PLA)
Number of Communes in China by 1962?
What did the Soviets do in 1959?
Withdrew economic support and political advisers from China
What was the Great Leap Forward (1958-62)?
Mao's second 5 year plan that entailed melting down metal to increase steel production
What did the Great Leap Forward result in?
Chinese famine (1959-61)
Between 30 and 60 million people died
What happened at the Lushan Conference in 1959?
Peng Duhai criticised the Great Leap Forward, claiming that it had not helped the people of his region. Nobody spoke up with Peng, who fled to the USSR and was ousted from power
When was Khrushchev replaced as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union?
Who replaced Khrushchev?
Which Chinese region did the USSR have the greatest influence over?
How many residents of Xinjiang emigrated to the USSR between 1961 and 1962?
With which other anti-revisionist communist nation did the PRC make links with?
Causes of the Sino-Indian war (1962)?
Chinese troops amassed to Tibet to suppress uprisings and implement the Great Leap Forward; India was uneasy with 80,000 soldiers near Eastern border
What percentage of Tibetan population died in the great famine (1959-62)?
25% - 1 million people
Highest death rate of any region in China
What role did the USSR play in Sino-Indian war (1962)?
Remained neutral; even supplied Indians with MiG21 fighter planes
What was the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963)?
Treaty signed by USA, UK and USSR agreeing to cease over-ground nuclear tests and to slow down the proliferation of nuclear weapons
How did the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) affect Sino-Soviet relations?
Mao saw Khrushchev as a coward for capitulating at the sight of US Army; Khrushchev saw Mao as insane for wanting a nuclear war
When did the PRC successfully detonate its first atomic device?
What was the Malinovsky Affair (1964)?
USSR's Defence Secretary, Malinovsky, drunkenly remarked that the Chinese should get rid of their "fool" as the Soviets had done with Khrushchev
What were the aims of the Cultural Revolution (1966-70)?
Remove capitalism from China; remove foreign influence from China; purge CCP of capitalism
How did the Cultural Revolution (1966-70) contribute to the Sino-Soviet split?
Both nations recalled ambassadors in 1967; showed differences between USSR's revisionism and China's constant revolution; partly led to publication of Brezhnev Doctrine in 1968
What did the Brezhnev Doctrine (1968) state?
USSR would forcefully intervene in the domestic affairs of any East European Communist nation should it be deemed that threats to socialism were at large