Reconciliation with old enemies and the return of Hong Kong (1978–97) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Reconciliation with old enemies and the return of Hong Kong (1978–97) Deck (41)
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1

What significant event in Sino-US relations took place in 1972?

President Nixon's visit to China, which included the signing of the Shanghai communiqué

2

What was the Shanghai communiqué?

Diplomatic document outlining the hope of a renewed friendship between China and the USA

3

What did the PRC secure membership of in 1971?

The UN and permanent membership of the UN Security Council; PRC replaced ROC (Taiwan) as the 'official' China

4

China's abstention rate in 1970s and 1980s?

1970s: On 32.3% of votes
1980s: On 6.2% of votes

5

When did China stand up to the USA on the UN Security Council?

1981: Blocked the reappointment of US-sponsored Kurt Waldheim as UN Secretary-General, in favour of a Tanzanian

6

Early example of China taking the lead in international diplomacy at the UN?

Supported UN Resolution 462, which called an emergency meeting to discuss the USSR's invasion of Afghanistan in 1980

7

What action hurt China's new relationship with the West?

The squashing of pro-democracy protests at Tiananmen Square in June 1989

8

How many troops were mobilised in Beijing to stop the Tiananmen Square protest?

300,000

9

How many civilian casualties were there at Tiananmen Square?

2,500 (estimate)

10

What did China receive just days after supporting contentious military action in the Gulf War in 1990?

World Bank loan of $114.3 million (USD) to support rural industries in China

11

Where did China support UN peacekeeping missions in the 1990s?

Rwanda, Somalia and Haiti

12

What is the IMF?

International Monetary Fund
Gives non-descript loans to nations in times of economic crisis or recession

13

What is the World Bank?

Gives loans to nations for specific projects, usually infrastructural

14

What advice from the IMF did China act on in 1986?

To increase interest rates and devalue the currency

15

1980: Five development loans from World Bank to China?

$200 million - Education: Science and engineering at Universities
$125 million - Increase capacity of freight harbours
$60 million - drainage and irrigation in Shandong
$75 million - Agricultural research
$70 million - Allow Chinese Investment Bank to loan foreign exchanges to industry

16

Number of loans to China between 1980 and 1992 from World Bank?

192 loans worth a total of $30 billion

17

What was one of the most successful World Bank funded projects in China?

The Lubuge Hydroelectric Project (1984)

18

When did the World Bank visit China?

1989

19

When did China sign a trade agreement with the EEC?

1978; extended by another deal in 1985

20

How did the EEC react to the Tiananmen Square incident of 1989?

Arms Embargo until 1997

21

Total worth of bilateral trade between China and the EEC in 1995?

$45.6 billion (USD)

22

Which nations were part of the Zone of Peace,
Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFRAN) in Asia?

China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam and Indonesia
All became important trading partners

23

How much did China invest in Africa between 1979 and 1990?

$51 million

24

What did China and Japan sign in 1978?

Treaty of Peace and Friendship Between the
People’s Republic of China and Japan

25

How did China benefit from new relationship with Japanese?

China received high-end technology,
industrial plants and construction machinery
Low interest loans

26

How did Japan benefit from new relationship with Chinese?

Crude oil, coal, access to Chinese markets for consumer goods

27

How did Japan invest in China in 1978-80?

Four major assistance packages amounting to $13 billion

28

Example of Japanese investment in China?

Baoshan steel complex in Shanghai

29

When was the first Japanese state visit to China?

1988

30

Who visited China in 1978?

US National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski