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Flashcards in The Japanese Threat (1931-1941) Deck (34)
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What was the Manchurian Crisis (1931-33)?

Japanese invasion of Manchuria after an engineered 'attack' on a Japanese railway line in Mukden, Manchuria


Who was behind the railway attack in Mukden in 1931?

The Japanese; the Lytton Report of 1932 exposed the false attack


What was the response of the West to the Manchurian Incident (1931-33)?

League of Nations told Japan to leave Manchuria (Japan left the League instead); many countries stopped trade with Japan


Why did Japan invade Manchuria in 1931?

Economy was suffering due to Western Depression of 1929; rapid population growth (lack of space) due to industrialisation; abundance of raw materials in China


Population of Japan in 1870 compared to 1930?

1870: 30 million
1930: 65 million


What was Chiang Kai-Shek's response to the Manchurian Incident (1931-33)?

Commanded Zhang to withdraw troops from Manchuria; Chiang appealed to the League of Nations


Why was Chiang not committed to opposing Japan in 1931?

Too busy trying to eradicate CCP; Chinese army was no match for Japanese


Response of Chinese people to Manchurian Incident (1931-33)?

Boycott of Japanese goods; Japanese sales in China were cut by two-thirds


Who became the puppet leader of Manchuria?

Puyi - the last Qing Emperor


How did Japan justify entering Shanghai in 1932?

Engineered a scenario where Japanese monks were beaten by Chinese thugs


How many Japanese troops were sent to Shanghai in 1932?



Effect of Japan's attack on Shanghai in 1932 on China?

200,000 people forced from the city
Railways and farmland destroyed
GMD driven out of Shanghai
Damages worth $1.5 bn


What followed the 1932 conflict in Shanghai?

Treaty of Tanggu


Terms of the Treaty of Tanggu (1933)?

Japanse forces retreat to Great Wall; Japanese control over Manchuria; Hebei became a demilitarized zone; Japan could fly recon aircraft to ensure the treaty was respected


Long term causes of Sino-Japanese war?

Chinese instability (GMD vs CCP); GMD taking first steps to reform; 1929 Great Depression


Medium term causes of Sino-Japanese War?

Manchurian Incident 1931-1933; NRA reform with Ex-German generals; rise of Hitler and Mussolini; 50% of Japanese government spending on military


Short term causes of Sino-Japanese War?

Marco Polo Bridge Incident (July 1937); Japanese advance into Beijing and Tianjin (July 1937); Chiang mobilised for war after Joint National Defence Meeting (August 1937)


What was the Marco Polo Bridge Incident (1937)?

Japanese soldier got lost and crossed Marco Polo Bridge into Chinese territory; skirmish on bridge as Japanese searched for missing soldier


What was the Xi'an Incident (1936)?

Chiang kidnapped by own men; told to stop hunt of CCP in favour of a United Front to attack Japan; Chiang agreed reluctantly


Why did Chiang attack Shanghai in August 1937?

Take Japanese by surprise; damage Japanese resources; political pressure on GMD as CCP had already declared a policy of total resistance to Japan


Strength of China and Japan at Shanghai (1937)

China: 700,000 troops; 180 aircraft; 40 tanks
Japan: 300,000 troops; 500 aircraft; 300 tanks; 130 naval ships


Casualties at Battle of Shanghai (1937)?

China: 250,000
Japan: 40,000


What campaign did Japan undertake after the Battle of Shanghai (1937)?

The seizure of the coast - campaign of naval dominance


Which Chinese ports were taken in the seizure of the coast (1937-38)?

Tianjin, Xiamen, Fuzhou, Shantou and finally Guangzhou in October 1938


What was significant about Nanjing in 1937?

It was the capital of the GMD-controlled China


Casualties at the Rape of Nanjing (1937)?

300,000 Chinese killed in total
20,000 women raped and killed
90,000 Chinese soldiers killed


Where did the GMD retreat to after the Rape of Nanjing (1937)?



How many enterprises were transported from Shanghai after the retreat of 1938?

Over 2000 (like Shanghai Machine Works)


How did the Soviets help China during the war?

50,000 rifles
10,000 machine guns
100 tanks
900 aircraft


How did the USA assist China economically (1940-1941)?

Loans ranging from $25 million to $50 milion


What steps did the USA take to improve the Chinese air force (1940-41)?

Claire Chennault (US adviser) negotiated purchase of 100 P-40 fighter planes from the USA; Chennault recruited US volunteers to help Chinese war effort


What happened on the 7th December 1941, which changed the fate of the war?

Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, where the US Pacific Fleet was based
USA entered the war after this


Pearl Harbor: key facts?

100 planes destroyed
5 battleships sunk
2400 servicemen killed


Help given to China by USA after 1941?

$500 million loan
$630 million 'Lend-Lease' package to buy military supplies