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Flashcards in Define and Explain Terms Deck (28)
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1

Judaism

- The monotheistic religion of the Jews
- Was not focused on creating a world-wide empire but rather on maintaining the ancient Jewish customs and the religion of Moses
- Jewish literature condemned idolatry and defended the existence of the one true God.
- Certain Jews, like in the First Book of Maccabees, condemned the Greek obsession with the human body.
- Encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture, and way of life of the Jews
- Torah= the foundational text
- Belief that God is concerned with the actions of mankind
- Jews wanted: a monotheistic faith, synagogue, Torah, and ownership of the holy land

2

Hellenism

- Used to describe the civilization of the three centuries or so from the time of Alexander the Great (336-323BC) during which the influence of Greek culture was felt in both East and West (p.14)
- Greekism
- Spread of Greek culture
- Was brought in by Alexander the Great: where the Greek way is the best way
- Influenced through culture and language
- Brought a unified language
- Political influence: Septuagint: the Old Testament was translated into Greek
- Septuagint ⇒ Vulgate (a Latin translation written by Jerome of which other translations were based upon)
- Effect: Hellenism brought gymnasiums, which led to jewish people wanting to be more greek like (uncircumcision) and theaters which were lectures of life

3

Zoroastrianism

- Monotheistic religion
- Founded by the prophet Zoroaster
- Taught a dualism in which there was envisaged an age-long struggle between the powers of light led by the good spirit Ahura-Mazda, and the powers of darkness led by the evil spirit Angra-Mainyu (dualistic principle) (p.21)
- Influenced the works of Pharisaic Judaism
- Influence is evident in such matters as the separation of the soul from the body at death, the lot of the departed between death and resurrection, the doctrine of resurrection and their teaching concerning the Last Judgement. (p22-23)

4

House of Tobias

- Syrians, pro-Seleucids
- Eventually lost to the House of Onias

5

House of Onias

- pro-Egyptian, Ptolemies
- Eventually won against the House of Tobias
- Brought Jews to their side
- Had religious control-decided who would be priest
- Decided to make Jerusalem more Greek (gymnasium, theater, etc)

6

Ptolemies

- South of Palestine (Egypt, Africa), controlled what went on
- Was first to control Palestine
- Septuagint came out of their reign
- “Headquarters” was in Alexandria
- Descendants of the throne

7

Seleucids

- North of Palestine, control by marriage relationships, eventually won
- Took control of Palestine from the Ptolemies
- “Headquarters” was in Antioch
- Allowed non-official animals to be sacrificed
- Practiced “sacred prostitution”

8

Menelaus

- Leader of the temple, politician
- Capital Offense Laws
=> Jews' children cannot be circumcised
=> You cannot personally own the Book of Torah
=> You cannot celebrate the festivals of your faith
=> Control of worship on Sabbath

9

Hasidim

- Third political party
- Puritan Jews
- People of the Book
- Wanted to maintain their way of doing things
- Opposed Hellenism and supported the Maccabean Revolt

10

Maccabean Revolt

- A result of a Mattathias from the Hasmonean house refusing to worship Greek gods
- Happened after Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice
- Named after Judas Maccabas (means “Hammar”)
- Resulted in 3 groups: Essenes, Pharisees, and Sadducees

11

Mattathias

- Leader of Israelites, spiritual head of the community
- Fought the Seleucids
- Did not want to compromise his faith
- Did not want to do the sacrifice Modein's way -- killed Modein

12

Hasmonean House

- The ruling Jewish dynasty
- Established by Simon Maccabeus
- Used to describe Judas’ and his brothers’ descendents, five in number, under whom the
- Jews experienced almost seventy years of independence (134-63 BC) (p32)

13

The Torah Religion

- “Torah” means “revelation,” but it is commonly translated to mean “law”
- The Old Testament
Religious writings from the Israelites
- Became the sign and symbol of the Jewish faith (p 42)
- It had a greater hold in the people’s personal religion rather than the Temple
- Judaism is able to survive after the destruction of the Temple (AD 70) for this reason
- Torah helped to prevail over the forces of the Enlightened Hellenism within Judaism
- It applied to the 5 books of Moses and the unwritten tradition

14

Pharisees

- Make sure the law is obeyed and respected, legal defense, keepers of law, heirs of the Hasidism
- Legalistic, OT law
- Was a religious sect, not a political party
- Were “separatists” from unclean things
- Oral law= equal authority with the Torah

Into Old Testament Law, keepers of the law, Pentateuch

15

Sadducees

- Aristocratic, control businesses, temple party, wealthy, not religious enough
- Many were priests
- Went to temple to be “seen”
- Conservative
- Refused to acknowledge authority of oral law
- Thought Temple was a relic of the past

Aristocratic, temple party, seen in places to be “seen” rather than to worship

16

Essenes

- The messiah would come out of them, prophetic writings, prophets
- Smaller group that moved out of Jerusalem into the mountains
- Close knit community near the Dead Sea
- Studying the Torah=basis of their community life

Moved out of Jerusalem into the mountains, gypsy life, prophetic writings

17

Zealots

- May justifiably be regarded as true spiritual children of the Maccabees, heirs of the Maccabees
- Brigands, robbers, patriots
- Radical, deep religious convictions
- Opposition to Rome, love for Torah
- Willing to lay down their lives

18

The Covenanters of Qumran

- Sub group of the Essenes
- Moved out into the desert
- Interpreted the scripture differently and lived differently
- We know of them from the Dead Sea Scrolls

19

Hebrew Scriptures

- Divided into three groups: Torah (Law), Nebi’im (Prophets), and Kethubim (Writings)
- Regarded as inspired and sacred and which carried ‘canonical’ authority were said by the Jews to ‘make the hands unclean’
- Consists of 24 books

20

Dispersion

- Example: Hellenism was a dispersion of Greek culture?
- Scattering outside of Palestine

21

Oral Tradition

Stories that are passed down from generation to generation

22

Darash

Interpretation of oral traditions

23

Midrash

- Ancient commentary on part of the Hebrew scriptures
- The Sopherim’s teaching and interpretation of the Scripture (p 64)
- Split into two parts
==> Halakah
~ “To walk”
~ Regulations regarding the civil and religious laws
~ A guide to show people how to walk in obeying the Law
==> Haggadah
~ “To tell” or “To recount”
~ Essentially everything not part of the Law
~Discussing the different biblical stories

24

The Apocrypha

- AKA Deuterocanonical
- 12 books considered part of the Apocrypha
- Most of them were composed in the last two centuries B.C. in Palestine
- Only two authors known by name: Jesus son of Sirach and Jason of Cyrene
- Initially written in Hebrew or Aramaic
- about 8 Themes

25

12 books considered part of the Apocrypha

1) I Esdras
2) II Esdras
3) Tobit
4) Judith
5) The rest of the chapters of the Book of Esther
6) The Wisdom of Solomon
7) The Wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus
8) Baruch
9) the Additions to Daniel
10) The Prayer of Manasses
11) I Maccabees
12) II Maccabees

26

2 authors of the Apocrypha

- Jesus son of Sirach
- Jason of Cyrene

27

Themes of the Apocrypha

- History
- Legend
- Fiction
- Psalms and Hymns
- Wisdom
- Apocalyptic
- Respect for the Temple
- Legalistic requirements

28

Other "Apocrypha" books called

pseudepigraphal

- I Enoch
- The Book of Jubilees
- The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs
- The Psalms of Solomon
- The Testament of Job
- The Assumption of Moses
- The Lives of the Prophets
- The Martydom of Isaiah
- The Testament of Abraham
- The Apocalypse of Abraham
- II Baruch or the Apocalypse of Baruch
- The Life of Adam and Eve or the Apocalypse of Moses (AD. 80-100)
- The Sibylline Oracles (Book III, IV, V)
- III Maccabees
- IV Maccabees
- II Enoch
- III Baruch