Dermatology Pharmacology and Prescribing Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dermatology Pharmacology and Prescribing Deck (26):
1

What is 'off labels' medicine?

Licensed medication that is being used for n unlicensed indication

2

What is a 'specials' medicine?

Long history of use, no strong evidence base nut clinically effective

3

What are some of the causes of prescribing errors?

Lack of knowledge
Mistake writing/generating prescription
Poor communication
No local or national guidelines

4

What is pharmacokinetics?

The effect of the body on the drug

5

What is pharmacodynamics?

The effect of the dug on the body

6

What must be considered with pharmacodynamics?

Age of patient
Pregnancy risk
Drug interactions
Pharmacogenetics

7

What are some influences in adherence to medication?

Female
Married
Employed
Not paying for their prescription
Increasing age

8

What are some factors associated with poor adherence?

Psychiatric co-morbidites
Slower acting agents
Multiple applications per day
Lack of patient education
Cosmetic acceptability of treatment

9

What is a vehicle?

Pharmacologically inert, physically and chemically stable substance that carries the active drug

10

What are the factors that effect absorption?

Concentration
Temperature
Skin site
Chemical properties of the drug
Vehicle
Thickness and hydration of stream corneum
Occlusion

11

What are the different types of vehicles?

Solution
Cream
Paste
Lotion
Gel
Foam
Ointment
Spray
Shampoo

12

What are some examples of drugs which are used topically?

Corticosteroid
Salicylic acid
Coal tar
Chemotherapy
Antibiotic
Antiviral
Dithranol
Vitamin analogues
Anti inflammatory

13

What effect will anti inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs have?

Vasoconstriction
Inhibit vascular permeability
Suppress fibroblast, endothelial and leukocyte function

14

How much should a finger tip unit treat?

Area double the size of one hand

15

What are the side effects of topical steroids?

Thinning/atrophy
Striae
Bruising
Hirsutism
Telangictasia
Acne/rosacea/ perioral dermatitis
Glaucoma
Cataracts
Systemic absorption

16

What are retinoids?

Vitamin A analogues

17

What are the 4 common oral retinoids used in dermatology?

Isotretinoin
Acitretin
Betarotene
Alitretinoin

18

What are the contraindications of retinoids?

Teratogenic (cardiac and neural birth defects)

19

What are the side effects of retinoids?

Chelitis and xerosis
Increases transaminases, increases triglycerides

20

What are some examples of immunosuppressants used in dermatology?

Oral steroids
Azathiprine
Ciclosporin
Methotrexate
Mycophenolate mofetil

21

What are the contraindications of immunosuppressants?

Risk of malignancy and serious infection

22

What are biologics?

Genetically engineered proteins derived from human genes

23

What biologics are licensed for psoriasis treatment?

Etanercept
Inflixamab
Ustekinumab
Secukinumab
Adalimumab

24

What biologic is licensed for chronic spontaneous urticaria?

Omalizumab

25

What are the contraindications of biologics?

Risk of infection (TB reactivation, avoid live vaccines)
Risk of malignancy
Risk of demyelination (TNF inhibitors)

26

What biologics are used in melanoma treatment?

Vemurafenib
Dabrafenib