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Flashcards in Determinants of Food Insecurity Deck (42)
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When was the UNICEF framework determined?

- Around 20 years ago
- Result of a long discussion concerning research about child undernutrition and child mortality


What did UNICEF recognize for the first time in the report concerning their framework?

That undernutrition remained the main cause for child mortality in the world


What are the two components of malnutrition?

- Undernutrition
- Overnutrition


According to the UNICEF framework, what are the three types of causes for malnutrition, disability, morbidity and death?

- Basic causes
- Underlying causes
- Immediate causes


What are the two types of immediate causes?

- Inadequate Diet
- Disease


How are an inadequate diet and disease interrelated?

- Children who are sick lose their appetite
- If the diet is inadequate, the child is more prone to illness


What are the three underlying causes?

- Inadequate household food security
- Inadequate care
- Inadequate services and unhealthy environment


What may inadequate care refer to?

- Hygiene
- Feeding
- Psychological and social support for cognitive and physical development


What are the two basic causes?

- Lack of capital
- Social, economical, and political context


What are the five types of capital?

- Financial
- Human
- Physical
- Social
- Natural


What is the medicalization of undernutrition? What is the problem?

- Approaches that deal with undernutrition using medical approaches (supplements)
- These approaches are NOT sustainable
- The basic causes MUST be addressed for sustainability


What are the three major components of the Determinants of Food Security of Australian Children?

- Food availability
- Food access
- Food utilization


The sizes of the components of the Determinants of Food Security of Australian Children depends on what?

On the number of STATEMENTS by the total interviewees


Which sub-component was mentioned the most in the Determinants of Food Security of Australian Children?

Nutrition knowledge and cooking skills


Where is low nutritional knowledge found?

- In impoverished, low-income populations
- People didn't know how to slice baguette from Panera


What are constitutional factors in the Determinants of Health?

- Age
- Sex
- Other constitutional factors (cannot change)


What are the effects of individual lifestyle factors? Give an example.

- Might attenuate or worsen the impact of constitutional factors
- Ex: you are aging, but you live a healthy lifestyle.


What are the five layers of the determinants of health?

- Constitutional factors
- Individual lifestyle factors
- Social and community networks
- Living and working conditions
- General socioeconomic, cultural, and environmental conditions


What are social and community networks?

- Gyms
- Parks
- Roads
- Safe environment to adapt a healthy lifestyle


What are living and working conditions?

- Agriculture and food production
- Education
- Work environment
- Unemployment
- Water and sanitation
- Health services
- Housing


How does climate change affect food availability?

- Flood and/or drought
- Natural disasters
- More pests (as temperatures increase)


How does climate change affect food access?

- Lower agricultural output means lower incomes of farmers
- Increase in food prices
- Lower physical access


How does climate change affect food utilization?

- Lower food quality
- Low access to clean water (contamination of water)
- Increased vulnerability to disease


How does climate change affect food stability?

- Unpredictable weather conditions
- Damaged infrastructure
- Increasing economic challenges


How will climate change affect crops by 2050?

Decline in yields for eight major crops across Africa and South Asia


How will climate change affect marine fisheries by 2050?

- Fisheries yield decreases in the tropics (40%)
- Fisheries increase in higher latitudes


What may climate change affect in the North?

Traditional foods may disappear


What are the consequences of heat and water passing critical thresholds?

- Temperature increase (4oC) endangers ability of farms and ecosystems to adapt
- Water cycles will be very different and less predictable (sea levels rise, glaciers melt)


Which country will undergo extreme water stress by 2050?



How many hectares are lost annually due to drought and desertification?

12 million